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Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Helpful information in Culture of Iran.

Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Shahram » Thu Sep 12, 2013 3:09 am

Iranian handicrafts are handicraft works originating from Iran.

Weaving

Carpet and Rug weaving
Ghalamkar
Iranian Termeh (weaving special table cloths)
Kilims
Persian embroidery (broderi dzi)
Zaridozi (decorating fabrics by sewing with golden stitches)

Metal works


Khatamkari
Minakari
Toreutics (Qalam-zani)

Wood works

Moarragh
Wood carving

Stone and Mosaic

Ceramic and mosaic works
Sculpturing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_handicrafts
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Re: Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Shahram » Sun Sep 15, 2013 7:12 pm

Persian carpet

The Persian carpet (Middle Persian: bōb, Persian: فرش‎ farsh, meaning "to spread"; sometimes قالی qāli) is an essential part of Persian art and culture. Carpet-weaving is undoubtedly one of the most distinguished manifestations of Persian culture and art, and dates back to ancient Persia. In 2008, Iran’s exports of hand-woven carpets was $420 million or 30% of the world's market. There is an estimated population of 1.2 million weavers in Iran producing carpets for domestic markets and international export. Iran exports carpets to more than 100 countries, as hand-woven rugs are one of its main non-oil export items. The country produces about five million square metres of carpets annually—80 percent of which are sold in international markets. In recent times Iranian carpets have come under fierce competition from other countries producing reproductions of the original Iranian designs as well as cheaper substitutes.

The designs of Persian carpets are copied by weavers from other countries as well. Iran is also the world's largest producer and exporter of handmade carpets, producing three quarters of the world's total output.[7][8][9] Though in recent times, this ancient tradition has come under stiff competition from machine-made products. Iran is also the maker of the largest handmade carpet in history, measuring 60,546 square feet (5,624.9 square metres).

Persian carpets can be divided into three groups; Farsh / Qāli (sized anything greater than 6×4 feet), Qālicheh (قالیچه, meaning "small rug", sized 6×4 feet and smaller), and nomadic carpets known as Gelim (گلیم; including زیلو Zilu, meaning "rough carpet").In this use, Gelim includes both pile rugs and flat weaves (such as kilim and soumak).


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Types of Persian carpets and rugs

Carpet dealers have developed a classification for Persian carpets based on design, type of fabric, and weaving technique.

Abadeh
Afghan/Yomut (Turkmen)
Ahar
Afshar
Arak
Ardabil
Ardestan
Assadabad rug
Bakhtiari
Balouch
Bijar
Birjand
Borujerd
Chelaberd
Chodor
Dorokhsh
Farahan
Ferdos
Ghayen
Gonabad
Gonbad Ghaboos
Gorgan
Herat
Heriz (Hariz)
Isfahan
Joshghan
Jozan
Kashan
Kashmar
Kerman
Lilian
Mahan
Mahalat
Maku
Mamasani
Marand
Mashhad
Mazlaghan
Meshkin Shahr
Moshk Abad
Mood
Nain
Nishaboor
Rafsanjan
Ravar
Saraband
Sarab
Saraband
Sarukh
Semnan
Sha Savan
Shahre Kord
Shiraz
Shahr Reza
Qazvin
Qom
Tabriz
Tehran
Torghabeh
Varamin
Yalameh
Yazd
Zanjan
Zabol

Rugs for a specific purpose include:

Hunting Scene Rugs


Ref and More information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_carpet
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Re: Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Shahram » Sun Sep 15, 2013 7:15 pm

Termeh


Termeh (Persian: ترمه‎) is a handwoven cloth of Iran, primarily produced in the Yazd province.

Image

Weaving Termeh requires a good wool with tall fibers. Termeh is woven by an expert with the assistance of a worker called "Goushvareh-kesh". Weaving Termeh is a sensitive, careful, and time-consuming process; a good weaver can produce only 25 to 30 centimeters in a day. The background colors which are used in Termeh are jujube red, light red, green, orange and black. Termeh has been admired throughout history: Greek historians commented on the beauty of Persian weavings in the Achaemenian (532 B.C.), Ashkani (222 B.C.) and Sasanidae (226-641 A.D.) periods and the famous Chinese tourist Hoang Tesang admired Termeh.

After Islam's arrival in Iran, the Persian weaving arts were greatly developed, especially during the Safavie period (1502-1736 A.D.), during which time Zarbaf and Termeh weaving techniques were both significantly refined. Due to the difficulty of producing Termeh and the advent of mechanized weaving, few factories remain in Iran that produce traditionally woven Termeh. Rezaei Termeh is the most famous of the remaining factories.

More information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_Termeh
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Re: Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Samaneh » Mon Sep 16, 2013 6:28 pm

Kilim

Kilims (Persian: گلیم‎ gelīm) are flat tapestry-woven carpets or rugs produced from the Balkans to Pakistan. Kilims can be purely decorative or can function as prayer rugs. Recently-made kilims are popular floor-coverings in Western households.


Image

Etymology

The term 'kilim' originates from the Persian gelīm (گلیم) where it means 'to spread roughly', perhaps of Mongolian origin. Various forms of the word are used in other languages: Turkish kilim; Greek κιλίμι; Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian ćilim; Albanian qilim; Polish kilim; Bulgarian килим 'kilim'; Ukrainian килим 'kylym'; Lithuanian kilimas. Kurdish has its own name: berr.


Types

Persian
Gelim of Harsin in Kermanshah, Tarh-e-Aroosak (طرح عروسک, "Doll Design") Type

Ordinary kilims: this type of kilim is woven with hemp, cotton and also wool threads.
Gunny kilim: this special type is woven with varicolored pieces of cloth.
Suzāni kilim: this type is embroidered with raised figures after the ordinary kilim is woven.
Needlework kilim: this type of kilim is hung on the wall and is woven with cotton threads.
Jol (جل): this is a kind of kilim the surface of which is embroidered. With their decorative designs, they are used as horse saddles.
Palās (پلاس): this is a kind of kilim in which each color is used for weaving several rajs, it does not have a pile. Palas is also the name used for the coarse woollen robes dervish wear.
Jājim (جاجیم) or chador-shab (چادرشب): this is a kind of striped carpet woven with colored threads and thinner than palas.
Zilu (زیلو): this is a kind of kilim woven with cotton threads and simple designs quite in harmony with rural life. It has a cotton warp and weft.
Rakht-e-khāb pich (رختخواب‌پیچ, "bed-packing"): this type of kilim is used by migrating tribes.
Charkhi-bāf kilim (چرخی‌باف): this is a kind of sturdy and thick kilim only one side of which can be used.
Khorjin (saddle-bags) and Juwals: these kilims are used for carrying goods.
Gilimcheh (گلیمچه, "small kilim"): these are woven like kilims but tiny and decorative.
Masnads: these are sturdy and fine-woven decorative kilimeches.
Navār-chādor (نوارچادر, "tent-band"): this type of kilim is decorative.
Sajādeh (سجاده, prayer kilims): these are woven with altar designs and are used for praying.
Ghigh: this kilim is used for the walls of tents; both of its side are the same and can be used alike.
Rah Rah (گلیم راه‌راه): These kilims (or, more precisely, soumak rugs) are woven mostly in the Sirjan region and are also called khatti design kilims. Ardebil and Moghan are woven in the same design but in lower qualities.

Balkans and Eastern Europe

Bosnian Kilim, of Bosnia
Pirot Kilim, of Serbia
Chiprovski Kilim, of Bulgaria
Polish Folk Kilim, of Poland
Manorial Kilim, of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Ukrainian Kilim of Ukraine

Anatolian (Turkish)

Perhaps the best known and most highly regarded, these kilims (or kelims) are traditionally distinguished by the areas, villages or cities in which they are produced, such as Konya, Malatya, Karapinar and Hotamis. Most Anatolian kilims are slit woven. Larger antique kilims were woven in two to three separate sections on small nomadic horizontal floor looms in three feet wide long strips, then carefully sewn together matching the patterns edges to create an ultimately wider rug. These pieces are still being produced in very limited quantities by nomadic tribes for their personal use and are commonly known as cicims

Cicim or Jijim or Jajim: kilims woven in narrow strips that are sewn together.

More Information: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kilim
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Re: Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Samaneh » Mon Sep 16, 2013 6:35 pm

Khatam-kari

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Delicate and meticulous marquetry, produced since the Safavid period: at this time, khatam was so popular in the court that princes learned this technique at the same level of music or painting. In the 18th and 19th centuries, katahm declined, before being stimulated under the reign of Reza Shah, with the creation of craft schools in Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz. "Khatam" means "incrustation", and "Khatam-kari" (Persian: خاتم‌کاری‎), "incrustation work". This craft consists in the production of incrustation patterns (generally star shaped), with thin sticks of wood (ebony, teak, ziziphus, orange, rose), brass (for golden parts), camel bones (white parts). Ivory, gold or silver can also be used for collection objects. Sticks are assembled in triangular beams, themselves assembled and glued in a strict order to create a cylinder, 70 cm in diameter, whose cross-section is the main motif: a six-branch star included in a hexagon. These cylinders are cut into shorter cylinders, and then compressed and dried between two wooden plates, before being sliced for the last time, in 1 mm wide tranches. These sections are ready to be plated and glued on the object to be decorated, before lacquer finishing. The tranche can also be softened through heating in order to wrap around objects. Many objects can be decorated in this fashion, such as: jewellery/decorative boxes, chessboards, cadres, pipes, desks, frames or some musical instruments. Khatam can be used on Persian miniature, realizing true work of art.

Coming from techniques imported from China and improved by Persian know-how, this craft existed for more than 700 years and is still perennial in Shiraz and Isfahan.
Last edited by Samaneh on Mon Sep 16, 2013 6:42 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Iranian handicrafts (Persian handicrafts)

Postby Samaneh » Mon Sep 16, 2013 6:41 pm

Mina-kari

Enamel working and decorating metals with colorful and baked coats is one of the distinguished courses of art in Isfahan . Mina, is defined as some sort of glasslike colored coat which can be stabilized by heat on different metals particularly copper. Although this course is of abundant use industrially for producing metal and hygienic dishes, it has been paid high attention by painters, goldsmiths and metal engravers since long times ago. In the world, it is categorized into three kinds as below:

painting enamel
Charkhaneh or chess like enamel
Cavity enamel.

What of more availability in Isfahan is the painting enamel of which a few have remained in the museums of Iran and abroad indicting that Iranian artists have been interested in this art and used it in their metal works since the Achaemenian and the Sassanid dynasties. The enamels being so delicate, we do not have many of them left from the ancient times. Some documents indicate that throughout the Islamic civilization of and during the Seljuk, Safavid and Zand dynasties there have been outstanding enameled dishes and materials. Most of the enameled dishes related to the past belong to the Qajar dynasty between the years 1810–1890 AD. There have also remained some earrings. Bangles, boxes, water pipe heads, vases, and golden dishes with beautiful paintings in blue and green colors from that time, Afterwards, fifty years of stagnation caused by the World War I and the social revolution followed. However, again the enamel red color, having been prepared, this art was fostered from the quantity and quality points of view through the attempts bestowed by Ostad Shokrollah Sani'e zadeh, the outstanding painter of Isfahan in 1935 and up to then for forty years.

Now after a few years of stagnation since 1992, this art has started to continue its briskness having a lot of distinguished artists working in this field. To prepare an enameled dish, the following steps are used. First, choose the suitable dish by the needed size and shape which is usually made by a coppersmith. Then, it is bleached through enameled working which is known as the first coat. It is then put into a seven hundred and fifty degree furnace. At this stage, the enameled metal will be coated with better enamels a few more times and again reheated. The dish is then ready to be painted. The Isfahanian artists, having been inspired by their traditional plans as arabesque, khataii (flowers and birds) and using fireproof paints and special brushes, have made painting of Isfahan monuments such as step, the enameled material is put into the furnace again and heated at five hundred degrees. This causes the enameled painting to be stabilized on the undercoat, creating a special "shining" effect. Most of today's enamel workings are performed on dishes, vases, boxes and frames in various size.
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