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Hormozgan Province

Hormozgan Province

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Apr 27, 2015 11:11 am

Introduction:Hormozgan Province (Persian:استان هرمزگان‎)

The province's capital is the port of Bandar Abbas. The most important cities of this province include Minaab, Bandar-e Jask, Bandar-e Lengeh, Hajiabad, Roudaan, and the Islands of Abu Mousa, Qeshm, and Kish. One of the prominent features of Hormozgan Province is the presence of 14 small and large residential islands in its territory, which are of paramount importance. These islands are of strategic and economic significance. The closest island of this province to the coastal belt is Hormoz and the largest island is Qeshm, which is situated in the Persian Gulf waters, at the opening of the Strait of Hormoz. The Strait of Hormoz is one the most sensitive and vital waterways of the world which is within the political territory of Hormozgan Province.

Geographically, Hormozgan Province is divided into two mountainous and coastal plain regions. A major segment of the area of this province is the mountainous region. The mountains of this region are the extension of Zagros Mountain Range, which gradually stretch from northeast to southeast. This Mountain Range leads to coastal plains of the Persian Gulf and Sea of Oman. These coastal plains expand in the vicinity of Strait of Hormoz and maintain more appropriate conditions for agriculture and cultivation of summer crops.

Meanwhile, one of the most evident features of the climate of Hormozgan Province is its warm weather. This province is one of the warm and dry regions of Iran, whose climate is under the influence of the weather conditions of desert and semi-desert regions. Its coastlines are very warm and humid in summer, while at times the temperature climbs up to over 52 degrees centigrade in the warm season. The average annual temperature of this region is about 27 degrees centigrade.

Hormozgan Province maintains a long warm season and a short cool season. The warm and humid season lasts nine months, while the cool season amounts to three months and is under the influence of western cool air currents.

In the winter season, the temperature of this province doesn't drop below ten degree centigrade and rarely shows Zero degrees centigrade in the coolest nights of the year. Meanwhile, the rate of rainfall in this province is extremely low. In fact, in this region, there are no important rainfalls for nine months of the year, while the main rainfalls are limited to one or two cases. Meanwhile, in these rare cases of rainfall, the residents of this province could witness spring season torrential rains, which inflict major losses. Also, the relative humidity of the Persian Gulf coastlines is high.

The historical geography of the Hormozgan Province has blended with the history and geography of the Persian Gulf. Till the 4th Century BC, there are scattered documents about the Persian Gulf, based on the writings of Greek historians. In ancient times, a number of tribes resided in the western coastlines of the Persian Gulf and Iran's southern and western plains.

Also there are evidences about the emergence and development of navigation in those times. For instance, one can refer to the navigation of sailors of Babylon in 7th Century BC in the Persian Gulf. The first certain document about sailing in the Persian Gulf is related to a rear admiral of Alexander of Macedonia, who was called Nearchus. Upon the order of Alexander of Macedonia, this sailor set sail for the Persian Gulf as the commander of the naval fleet. He arrived in an uninhabited island in the Persian Gulf, which is currently referred to as Hormoz Island.

Nearchus said that throughout his voyages, the Persian Gulf coastlines were the most developed coastal belts he had ever seen. The written history of Bandar-e Hormoz starts as of the emergence of Sassanid Dynasty in 3rd Century AD. Following the collapse of Sassanid dynasty and the advent of Islam, this port turned into one of the most important trade hubs of the East.

As of late 8th Century AD, which was concurrent with the development of Abbasid Dynasty, naval trade was highly boosted. Many historians consider the Persian Gulf waterway to be more important than the famous Silk Road. The well-known Italian tourist, Marco Polo, visited the Island of Hormoz from 1272 to 1293 AD. He referred to the trade of Iran's jewels, the ivory and silk of India and China, and the pearls of Bahrain throughout the markets of Hormoz Island in those days.

In the past few centuries, the Western colonialists set foot on Hormozgan Province, starting with the Portuguese.

In the year 1497, for the first time, the Portuguese colonialists, led by Vasco de Gama, landed in Persian Gulf ports. Nearly, ten years later, another Portuguese invader, Afonso de Albuquerque, besieged and occupied the Island of Hormoz with seven warships under the pretext of protection of Portugal's interests in the face of Egyptian and Venetian traders. The Hormoz Island, at that period of time, was considered as the key to the trade of the Persian Gulf region and its collapse led to separation of Hormoz from Iran and the domination of the Portuguese over the Strait of Hormoz.

At the time, the Safavid King, Shah Ismail, did not succeed in driving out the Portuguese, because of his engagement in a war with the Ottomans. But, a while later, the Safavid King, Shah Abbas, ended the rule of Portuguese over the Persian Gulf with the assistance of the British troops, who rivaled the Portuguese. On the other hand, the Dutch founded a trade center in Bandar Abbas in the waning years of 16th Century AD, which led to further rivalry of Holland and Britain.

In the waning years of the rule of Safavid King, Shah Abbas, the Iranian government annulled the customs exemptions for the Dutch imports and exports. The Dutch sent several warships to the Strait of Hormoz and Bandar Abbas to prevent the trade of the British.

Concurrently, relations between Holland and Britain went sour in Europe, and the Dutch attacked British ships in Jask and occupied the Island of Qeshm. They even built a strong fortification in the vicinity of their trade center in Bandar Abbas. To get closer to the opening of Persian Gulf, the Dutch colonialists transferred their trade center to the Island of Khark and refused to pay rent to the ruler of Reeg Port and Khark Island.

In the year 1765 AD, the ruler of Khark Island attacked Dutch troops, occupied their fortification, and drove them out of Khark Island. In this manner, the Dutch were practically driven out of Persian Gulf. But, this time, the British, following the establishment of East India Company, pursued their colonial and expansionist policies against Iran and in a short period dominated the Persian Gulf coastlines. The British government deceitfully obstructed the unity of local powers and undermined these local powers via stirring regional wars.

In this period, British policy focused round establishment of several sheikhdoms to obstruct their unity against the British colonial rule. After World War I, economic and strategic importance was attached to Persian Gulf as a highly important trade waterway and as an important factor behind the growth of industries, such that all foreign trade parties to Iran, especially Britain, earnestly tried to maintain their physical presence in the Persian Gulf.

The sensitive situation of Hormozgan Province, and the strategic Strait of Hormoz, in the following decades, also attracted the attention of foreign governments and states toward this region.

Even, currently, the Western colonial regimes try their utmost to maintain their presence in this strategic region under the pretext of maintenance of the security of Persian Gulf.

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Location: Hormozgan province in Persian golf.


Days of trip: (Without plane) 3-4 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need 20 hr driving from Tehran to Bandar Abbas)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: October to May

Daily time visit: Depend on your plan

Difficulty level: Depend on your plan

Requirements: (Depend on your plan) Guide or GPS track...

Legal permission need: Depend on your plan


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: Depend on your plan

Lost risk: Depend on your plan

Rescue: You can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Depend on your plan


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Hotel: in Bandar Abbas Yes

Village:

Shop: Depend on your plan

Gasoline: Depend on your plan


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How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or sout terminal of buses in Tehran (more info), Also you can use air plane or traine.
2- Take a bus ticket to Bandar Abbas.( Distance from Tehran to Bandar Abbas is 1518 km)


Nearest airport: Bandar Abbas airport

Nearest train station: Bandar Abbas station


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Location on map:




Also see:

Kish:

viewtopic.php?f=37&t=3352&p=7578
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=3351&p=7577
viewtopic.php?f=12&t=3350&p=7576
\http://www.anobanini.com/forum/viewtopic.php?f=37&t=3348&p=7573
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=3346&p=7571
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=1259&p=2098

Qeshm:
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=3362&p=7619
viewtopic.php?f=40&t=1724&p=3215
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=1719&p=3198
viewtopic.php?f=37&t=1259&p=2098



Pictures:

Bandar Abbas

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Gel Afshan" mud volcano

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Re: Hormozgan Province

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Apr 27, 2015 11:26 am

Furthermore, we reviewed the presence of Portuguese, British, and Dutch colonialists in this sensitive region. In today's episode, we become familiar with the cultural, social, and economic features of this province.

Hormozgan Province has long been the cradle of ancient culture, throughout which the first culturally enriched ruling systems were founded. The Arab, Lor, Fars, Baluch, and Turk ethnicities have live on the coastlines and islands of Hormozgan. The locals of a number of ports and islands of Hormozgan Province are Arabic-speaking people, who have migrated from other regions of the country to this region. Laari and Mokraani ethnicities also reside in Hormozgan Province.

The people of this province converse in a number of dialects, which are the sub-branches of Farsi and Lori languages. In the western parts and Iranian islands of the Persian Gulf, Arabic language is commonly conversed. Also, in the eastern regions, such as Jask Port, Baluchi language is commonplace.

The majority of the people of this province are engaged in agriculture, fishing, and marine transportation. This province is of significance due to the swift growth of summer crops and the relative regional advantages. For instance, a large number of summer crops and vegetables including tomatoes, cucumbers, okra, and water melons are produced in the province. Also production of citrus fruits, such as oranges, tangerines, and lime is common in the province.

This province is also rich in regard to mineral resources, and is home to the chromate, chalkstone, limestone, salt, sulfur, and Iron mines. The province also sits on huge deposits of oil and natural gas, which are of significance in Iran's economy.

This province is of economic importance in regard to food industry and marine transportation. The fishery industry is one of its main marine industries; the products of which are distributed across the country in the form of tuna fish and sardine cans. Other industries, such as the boat and ship making industry, textile industry, lime juice factory, and the repair and reconstruction workshops for ships and boats are active in this province.

In addition to agricultural activities, and operation of industries, mines and transportation system; this province has long been the center of production of handicrafts, given its rich and deep-rooted culture and traditions. The handicrafts of this province include the indigenous clothing of the regional women, and a straw mat, named "Tak", which is also used as a cover for the ceiling of homes. Also, pottery and rug weaving are commonplace in this province. In regard to marine handicrafts; paintings and statues are made of sea shells and fish skeleton.

The city of Bandar Abbas is the capital of Hormozgan Province. It is one of the important commercial and economic hubs of the country. This port city played a highly valuable role during Saddam Hussein's imposed war on Iran, especially since the important ports of Abadan and Khoramshahr were raided by the enemy.

Bandar Abbas lies on the coastlines of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman, next to the Islands of Qeshm, Hormoz, and Laark, and is situated in close proximity to the strategic Strait of Hormoz. This port maintains significant capacities, including an advanced infrastructure and economy. Shahid Rajai wharf is a center for exchange of commodities between Iran and other countries. Bandar Abbas is connected to other regions of the country and the world via marine routes, national railroad network, transit roads, and by air.

The historical city of Bandar Abbas, in addition to its major economic role, is home to valuable historical works, such as the ancient district of Soro, Latidaan Bridge, Kolah-Farangi Building, and a Hindu temple.

The ancient district of Soro is situated west of the port city of Bandar Abbas. Several coins belonging to different eras, especially the Sassanid, Safavid, and Qajar eras have been discovered in this ancient district, which are currently kept at Bandar Abbas Museum. Based on this discovery, it seems that the rulers of Hormoz possessed a mint house and also minted gold coins, in addition to copper and silver coins.

The Latidaan Bridge is one of the historical monuments of Bandar Abbas. After the expulsion of Portuguese from Iran, the importance of Hormoz Island gradually fell and Bandar Abbas turned into the most important port of Iran. The Latidaan Bridge was constructed for the purpose of promotion of trade. This bridge is situated 50 kilometers west of Bandar Abbas over Koul River and is a historical monument, belonging to the Safavid era. It is made of stone and is one of the largest bridges of Iran. It maintains one of the best designs of ancient bridges in Iran.

Kolah Farangi Building is one of the tourist attraction sites of Bandar Abbas. It belongs to the Safavid Era and was previously home to the Customs Office of Bandar Abbas port. This building is situated in the vicinity of the ancient wharf of this port city. This building's architecture has been influenced by the European architectural styles.

The Hindu Temple is one of the historical works of Bandar Abbas, which attracts the attention of every newcomer. It was built in 1310 AH. It is made of a chamber, covered with a dome. The architecture of this dome is different from other domes across the country and is influenced by the architecture of Indian temples.


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