Postby Parvaneh » Sat Mar 14, 2015 8:45 am

Introduction:Nayshapour-Neyshaboor-Neyshabour-Neyshabur-Nayshabur-Nayshaboor(Persian:شهر نیشابور)

Nayshapour is one of the important cities of Khorasan Razavi Province. This city has accommodated half a million people and is considered as the second most populous provincial city. The economic mainstays of the residents of Nayshapour are agriculture, animal husbandry, and industrial activities. The most important agricultural products of this city are wheat, barley, corn, cotton, summer crops, and a variety of fruits and livestock products. Modern and traditional agriculture are common in this city. Out of the 83 different agricultural products of the province, 76 of them are cultivated in Nayshapour. The city’s aqueducts are the most important water sources, which have maintained their significant importance to this day.

The Nayshapour plain leads to Binaaloud Mountains from the north and east; to Sorkh-e Kashmar and Chehel-Tan altitudes from the south; and to Sabzevar desert from the west. This plain is highly fertile, such that Nayshapour is known for its mild and moderate climate, opulent orchards, and diversity of its fruits. The majority of fertile and populous regions are located in the northern corner of this city. Several rivers run through it; the most important one of which is Kaal Shur, which originates from the altitudes of Sabzevar city and pour into the desert. The other rivers running through this city include Doroud, Khor, Bojaan, Baaghroud, Mirabad, Taghan, Baar, Baqi’e, and Sarvelayat Rivers. The highest pinnacle of this city is within the Binaaloud Mountain Range at an altitude of 3211 meters.

Nayshapour is one of the important cities of Khorasan Razavi Province in eastern Iran, which has been situated on the foothills of Binaaloud Mountains. It is one of the most important cultural, touristic, industrial, and historical hubs of northeastern Iran and is considered as one of the symbols and epitomes of Iran’s culture and history.

It is one of the most lasting and enduring cities of Iran and Khorasan, which has been en route the Silk Road. In accordance to archeological studies in this city, this region maintained trade with Sind Valley in Pakistan and Mesopotamia in 3rd Millennium BC and is the most ancient region of Great Khorasan.

The most important period of time in the history of Nayshapour spans from early 3rd Century AH to early 6th Century AH. This city was built in the Sassanid era in mid-3rd Century AD upon the order of Shapour the First. It was conquered in the year 643 AD during the caliphate of Omar Ibn-e Khattab. This city was chosen as the capital of Iran throughout the rule of Taherian and Saljuqid dynasties, and was one of the ten largest cities of Iran in 11th Century AD. The prosperity and popularity of this city was concurrent with the post-Islamic era in Khorasan up until the raids of Mongols, throughout which this city was known as Iran’s cultural capital. This city was en route the Silk Road. Iran’s main trade route to Turkistan passed through Nayshapour to Sarakhs in the frontier regions of Iran and Tajikistan, up to the city of Marv in southeast Tajikistan, and was of paramount importance.

Nayshapour was one of the centers of science and innovation throughout the golden era of Islamic civilization, particularly during the rule of Abbasid Dynasty. It was the hometown of many scientists, poets, Sufis, and other scientific and religious figures. The barbaric raids of Mongols and their consequences dealt a heavy blow to Nayshapour in the course of history.

However, the onslaughts of Mongols and several earthquakes failed to destroy Nayshapour and even today this city is one of the most populous ones in Khorasan Razavi Province and Iran, and is considered as one of the most active provincial cities in the domains of industry and economy. This city is home to scenic landscapes, in addition to spiritual and cultural sites, and is en route the Silk Road, capturing the attention of many travelers. Still, after roughly 3,000 years, this city remains as lively and glorious as ever. Hence, in the year 2011, Nayshapour was registered as the most enduring city of Iran at UNESCO.

In addition to Mongol raids, the city was highly damaged due to a number of earthquakes. Therefore, the residents of the ancient city of Nayshapour built a new city and settled over there. What has remained from the ancient city of Nayshapour is a region named Kohandej, which covers an area of 3500 hectares. The first archeological studies in Nayshapour commenced as of 1935, which continue to this day. The present day evidences prove the vastness of the ancient city of Nayshapour.

It is interesting to know that 3rd and 4th Centuries AH marked the peak of art of pottery in the city of Nayshapour. In this period of time, this city was one of the hubs for pottery. During the archeological studies in this city in the year 1988, the history of pottery in Nayshapour was clarified. The ceramic items unearthed in this city are kept in museums in Tehran and the Metropolitan Museum in New York. The art of pottery in Nayshapour in addition to diversity in techniques of production maintains diversity in patterns and calligraphy, displayed on the related items, and proves the domination of the related artists. The enamels; beautiful writings on the dishes in Kofi language; the patterns of plants, animals, and humans; and the high capacity to combine the picture of each of these elements on ceramic dishes have added significance to this Islamic art.

The city of Nayshapour is globally famous for its high-quality turquoise stones. For centuries, the turquoise stones of this city have been known as the most famous and best quality ones across the world, and have been exported to different regions of the world. Despite the presence of turquoise deposits in New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, Tibet, Sinai Peninsula, and Chile, some of which are important quantity-wise; experts continue to believe that the turquoise mines of Nayshapour are of the best quality worldwide. Turquoise is one of the precious stones which Egyptian Pharaohs excavated from the mines of Sinai Peninsula in 3400 BC, using them as ornaments. The excavation of turquoise stones was promoted in the Sassanid era.

In accordance to archeological samples which have been discovered, the turquoise stones were used as decorative stones in Iran in 2nd Millennium BC. Today, Turkey, Italy, and Sweden are the main importers of Iran’s turquoise.

It is interesting to know that Nayshapour has also been the cradle of prominent scientific and cultural figures such as the great mystical figure, Sheikh Attar; the renowned mathematician and poet, Ommar Khayyam; and the famous painter, Kamal Ul-Mulk. We will become familiar with these renowned figures, next week. We wish you all the best. Take care.



Location: Nishapur or Nishabur, in the Razavi Khorasan Province

Walking path length: Depend on your plan

Days of trip: 3-4 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need about 9 hr driving from Tehran to Nishabur-760 Km)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: No limit but Spring is the best

Daily time visit:Depend on your plan

Difficulty level: Depend on your plan

Requirements: Guide or GPS track-Depend on your plan

Legal permission need:Depend on your plan


Overall risk: -

Animal risk: Depend on your plan

Lost risk: No

Rescue: You can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Yes


Hotel: in Nishapur City Yes

Village: Located in Nishapur or Nishabur City

Shop: in Nishapur City Yes

Gasoline: in Nishapur City Yes


How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or east terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus to Nishapur.(Distance from Tehran to Nishabur is 760 Km )

Nearest airport: Mashhad airport

Nearest train station: Nishapur or Nishabur station


Location on map:


Khayyam-ʿUmar ibn Ibrāhīm al-Khayyām




Kamal-ol-Molk Tomb



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