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Golestan province

PostPosted: Wed Mar 12, 2014 4:11 pm
by Parvaneh
Introduction:Golestan province (Persian: استان گلستان ‎)

Golestan province has been the biggest and the most prosperous region of northern Iran before and after the Islamic rule.

Known as Gorgan until the 7th century, the province was called Astarabad from the 7th to 14th century.

It is one of the oldest provinces, which housed Aryans in northern Iran, wrote.

Gorgan has played an important role in the flourishing of Islamic and Iranian civilizations and boasts of many historical relics.

Golshan Mosque

Golshan Mosque is located near Jorjan Square in Gorgan.

The original building of this mosque dates back to the Safavid Era. It was repaired during the Qajarid rule.

Currently, a new mosque stands at the venue of the ancient one, but the southern porch still belongs to the old construction.

Grand Mosque

Related to the Safavid and Qajar period, the original building of this mosque is located in the Na’l Bandan locality of the city.

Most probably, its construction coincides with that of the brick minaret of Seljuk period. It was expanded and renovated later.

The mosque covers an area of 1,600 square meters and comprises a large courtyard, eastern and western porches, nocturnal areas, north and south facing entrances, minarets of Seljuk Era, epigraphs, cuneiform inscriptions and brick adornments.

Its architectural features include the carved wooden pulpit and engraved decrees of Safavid and Afshar eras.

The ancient engraved door of the mosque, together with some archaic epigraphs and endowment documents, remains in the museum.

Imamzadeh Noor

The shrine of Imamzadeh Es’haq ibn Musa ibn Jafar is located in Sarcheshmeh of Gorgan. Es’haq was Imam Reza’s (AS) brother.

One of the well-known rituals relevant to this shrine is that during Norouz (the Iranian New Year), thousands of people gather here and at the end of this ceremony, everyone receives cards, sweets and coins.

Aqa Mohammad Khan Palace

This palace was built by Aqa Mohammad Khan Qajar and is situated in southern Gorgan. Its architectural facets are related to 12th century AH (after hegira).

Aq Qala Bridge

The bridge is located at 18 km to the north of Gorgan and at the beginning of Gorgan River and Aq Qala city. This bridge is 74 meters in length and consists of four arches.

Aq Qala Bridge was constructed in 9th century and repaired during the Safavid rule.

Eskandarieh Dam

This defensive wall is located to the north of Gorgan and Gonbad, and is known by the names of Qezel Allan and Eskandar.

Built on the west-east axis, the wall has defensive towers and castles at intervals, the relics of which are similar to hillocks on the fringes of this wall.

The walls of these castles and ramparts have been generally constructed of colossal square bricks. Parts of this defensive wall, which has remained intact, is approximately 3-5 meters in height and 10 meters in width.

Gorgan Old Bazaar

This ancient bazaar is situated in the ancient quarters of the town. Here, there are historical and religious buildings, water tanks and caravansaries.

The ancient Gorgan network was one of the most important centers for commercial, cultural and social activities. The bazaar is one of the most beautiful markets of the province with respect to architecture.

Gorgan Hill

It is one of the most significant hills in Golestan province.

Located 25 km in northeast Gorgan, the hill covers a vast area and overlooks a large blue pool. It dates back to the 3rd millennium BC.

During archeological and scientific studies of its layers, discoveries such as earthenware, articles of daily use and bronze tools have further increased the importance of this region.

Gonbad Qabous Tower

The tower is a beautiful brick structure belonging to 4th century AH. It is located on a hillock inside the grand park of Gonbad Kavous city.

It is the tomb of Shams-ol-Ma’ali Qabous Ibn Voshmgir Ziyari, the ruler of the times in Gorgan and a famed scholar as well.

The tower is a fortified building and consists of beautiful ornamental works in proportionate lines. It consists of three parts: foundation, the main building and the dome.

The actual structure rests on a round base, 2 meters of which are above the ground and the rest lies as an underground base.

(Source: Iran Daily)


Location: Gorgan City,Golestan province

Walking path length: -

Days of trip: 2-3 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need about 6-8 hr driving from Tehran to Gorgan City)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: No Limit, Spring is the best time.

Daily time visit: Depended on your plan

Difficulty level: Depended on your plan

Requirements: Guide or GPS track...Depended on your plan

Legal permission need:Depended on your plan


Overall risk: -

Animal risk: No

Lost risk: No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Depended on your plan


Hotel: in Gorgan city Yes

Village: Located in Gorgan city

Shop: Depended on your plan

Gasoline: Depended on your plan


How to get there:
1- Go to east terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus to Gorgan (Also you can use train or air palne)Distance from Tehran to Gorgan is 393 km.

Nearest airport: Gorgan airport

Nearest train station: Gorgan station


Location on map:

Also see:


Re: Golestan province

PostPosted: Sun May 25, 2014 4:59 am
by Parvaneh
Gonbad Qabous Tower

Re: Golestan province

PostPosted: Sun May 25, 2014 5:00 am
by Parvaneh
Imamzada Nur of Gorgan (Imamzadeh nor)


Re: Golestan province

PostPosted: Sun May 25, 2014 5:01 am
by Parvaneh
Imamzada Nur of Gorgan (Imamzadeh nor)


Re: Golestan province

PostPosted: Sun May 25, 2014 5:01 am
by Parvaneh
Imamzada Nur of Gorgan (Imamzadeh nor)


Re: Golestan province

PostPosted: Sat Apr 25, 2015 12:30 pm
by Parvaneh
The valuable historical monuments in this region such as "Tourang-Tapeh", "Eslam-Tapeh", the ancient city of Gorgan, Eskandar Dam or Gorgan Wall, Qaaboos Dome and several other sites, date back from the Third Millennium BC up to the Islamic era.

In the past, Golestan Province was the eastern region of Mazandaran Province in northern Iran. However, in the year 1997, given the particular regional features, and in line with the goals of Iran's development plans, it became an independent province, with the city of Gorgan as its capital.

Golestan Province covers an area of almost 22,000 square kilometers. It neighbors the Republic of Turkmenistan from the north; Khorasan Province from the east; Semnan Province from the south; and Caspian Sea and Mazandaran Province from the west. Several ethnicities reside in this province, including Fars, Turkmen, Sistani, Baluch, Kurdish, Azari, and Kazakh ethnicities.

The Fars residents of this region are divided into locals and immigrants. The local Fars residents speak in Gorgani, Katouli, and Mazandarani dialects. The Fars immigrants are Sistani, Semnani, and Khorasani by origin. The Fars-speaking residents mainly reside in the central and southern regions of this province, while Mazandarani residents have settled in villages, west of this province.

The Turkmen who reside in eastern, central, and northern regions of this province are Sunnis and speak in Turkmen language. They are also familiar with Farsi. Given that Turkmens constitute a major segment of the ethnicities, residing in this region, we will become further familiar with the Turkmens and their customs and traditions.

The Golestan Province, via Iran's nationwide railway network, is linked to the capital of Mazandaran Province, Saari, while the rail network stretches further to the cities of Garmsaar and Tehran. Golestan Province is en route to large numbers of passengers who are bound for the holy city of Mashhad from northern Iran. In fact, the hospitable people of Golestan Province are hosts to these pilgrims.

Given its special geographical status, Golestan Province maintains a variety of climates. A part of Alborz Mountain Range stretches from the west to the east of this province. Shahvaar Pinnacle, which stands at 3320 meters above the sea level, is the highest pinnacle of this province and is situated in southwestern region of Golestan Province. The related foothills are home to ample underground water sources, which are made use of by excavation of wells and underground ducts. Note that plains constitute a large segment of Golestan Province.

Two climates are observed in the plains of Golestan Province. More than two thirds of these plains maintain dry and semi-dry climate and the further we get close to the border of Turkmenistan; the dryness of the climate intensifies. One third of these plains are an ever-green region engulfed by the mountainous region in the south and the dry and semi-dry region in the north. These plains maintain a mild climate and are highly suitable for farming. The majority of this province's cities and villages are located in this ever-green region. Two currents of air play crucial roles in determination of Golestan Province's climate. The northern air current enters the province from Siberia, leading to snowfalls in fall and winter throughout southern altitudes and rainfalls across the foothills. Meanwhile, the other current of air originates from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, leading to rainfalls in winter and a rise in humidity in the summer season. Hence, the majority of rainfalls are in winter and the least rainfalls are in summer. Meanwhile, the northern region of this province, the dry and semi-dry region, has the least rainfall and is home to semi-infertile lands due to the major evaporation of water.

The diversity of climates in this region has made the region home to wide-scale natural sources, including thick forests, meadows, and farmlands. More than 600,000 hectares of dry-farmed and irrigated lands are under cultivation in this province. Wheat, barley, cotton, rice, soya beans, peanuts, vegetables such as cucumbers and lettuce, olive and other oil seeds are cultivated in this province. In fact, more than 40% of cultivated oil seeds in Iran are produced in this province, which ranks first nationwide in this regard. Meanwhile, Golestan Province is unique in Iran, when it comes to the diversity of its products. This province also ranks second in the country in regard to production of tobacco.

The important water sources of this region include thirty rivers, including the two main rivers of Atrak and Gorgan. Atrak River originates from "Hezar-Masjed" Mountains in Khorasan Province and stretches 500 kilometers. This river is situated north of Golestan Province and a number of dams are constructed across it for the irrigation of farmlands. The Atrak River finally pours into the Caspian Sea. The Gorgan River stretches 250 kilometers and is the largest river in the region, originating from the mountains of Khorasan Province, and pouring into the Caspian Sea. The construction of Voshmgir Dam over Gorgan River controls water for irrigation of farmlands and plays a major role in prevention of floods and the related damages.

Now that you have been briefed on the geographical position and the nature of Golestan Province, it is appropriate to become familiar with the rich history of this region.

This region's history dates back to 7,000 years ago. In accordance to the studies which have been carried out, Gorgan region was home to pre-Aryan civilization, 6,000 years ago. The oldest tools of the Neolithic period have been discovered in Kamarband and Hootu Caves in the vicinity of Behshahr city. These tools and items prove the familiarity of the people of that period of time with pottery, weaving, domestication of animals such as goats; and construction of stone-made tools. The discoveries made in the vicinity of Gorgan shows this region has been home to populous villages, and farming irrigation networks. The name of this region has been mentioned in inscriptions, remaining from the Achaemenian era. Meanwhile, the Greek historians have named this region as Hirkani. The father of the Achaemenian ruler, Darius, once ruled this region.

Golestan Province, with its starry nights, thick forests, and green meadows, maintains a history, which dates back to 7,000 years ago. The archeologists have named this region as the home to pre-Aryan civilization. According to archeologists, the historical works in this region are highly similar to the tools that have been found in the vicinity of Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.