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Tabriz

Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Tue Feb 11, 2014 6:20 pm

Introduction:Tabriz (Persian:تبریز‎)
Tabriz is the capital of one of the most famous provinces of Iran, The Azarbaijan or Aturpatgan. It is the land of Azargoshnasp temple; The fire temple of the Kings and the Nobles of Iran. It is perhaps the birth place of Zaratushtra.

Tabriz, Being the provincial capital of East Azarbaijan ( Aturpatgan ), has slightly more than 1,700,000 population and was the second largest city in Iran until the early 1970's. Tabriz has been the capital city of Iran on numerous times throughout the old history of this country. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the beautiful Mount Sahand. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes down gently to the northern end of Lake Orumieh, about 60 km to the west. Tabriz is 310 km southeast of Bazargan (Iranian-Turkish frontier); 159 km south of Jolfa on Iran- Aran (Azarbaijan Republic) border, and can be reached by very good roads, rail (742km from Tehran, with connections to the Europe and Moscow), and air from Tehran and other major cities.

The city has a long and turbulent history although the early history of Tabriz is shrouded in legend and mystery, the town's origin is believed to date back to distant antiquity, perhaps even before the Sassanian era (224 - 651 A.D.). The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz is that of Sargon the second, the Assyrian King. The tablet refers to a place called Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe this castle was situated on the site of the present day Tabriz. It was the capital of Azarbaijan in the 3rd century A.D. and again under the Mongol Ilkhanid dynasty (1256 - 1353), although for some time Maragheh supplanted it.

During the reign of Aqa Khan of the Ilkhanids, as well as under the reign of Ghazan Khan, Tabriz reached the peak of glory and importance. Many great artists and philosophers from all over the world traveled to Tabriz. In 1392, after the end of Mongol rule, the town was sacked by Tamerlane. It was soon restored under the Turkman tribe of the Qara Qoyunlu, who established a short-lived local dynasty. Under the Safavids it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Safavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved the capital to Qazvin because of the vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks. The town then went into a period of decline, fought over by the Iranians, Ottomans and Russians and struck by earthquake.

Tabriz was the residence of the crown prince under the Qajar kings, but the town did not return to prosperity until the second half of the 19th century. The greatest boost to Tabriz came with the opening up of Iran to the West at the turn of this century, when it became the main staging post between the interior of Iran and the Black Sea and,for a short time, the economic capital. In 1908 it was the center of a revolt against Mohammad Ali Shah, which was only put down with the brutal intervention of the Russians. In the second Irano-Russian War the city was occupied by the Czar troops. However, it was returned to Iran following the signing of Turkmanchai Treaty, a peace and trade settlement that ended the Irano-Russian War of 1826-1828.


House of Constitution The Iranian Constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty (1779-1925). Sattar Khan and Baqer Khan were the two most prominent leading figures behind the movement. Tabriz was occupied by Russians several times in the first half of 20th century, including most of both world wars. A railway line to the border at Jolfa, built by the expansionist Russians, was of little importance until recently, but it has increased in significance in the '90s as a result of Iran's friendlier relations with its northern neighbors.

With a very rich history, Tabriz used to house many historical monuments. Unfortunately, many of them were destroyed in repeated invasions and attacks of foreign forces, negligence of the ruling governments, as well natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. What remains now mostly dates back to the Ilkhanids, the Safavids, and the Qajars. Some of the monuments are unrivaled masterpieces of architecture.

There are many factories and great industrial and productive sites in Tabriz which have changed it into one of the industrial centers in the country. The most important factories are as follows: Tractor, machinery and ball-bearing manufacturing factories, refinery and so many other centers such as carpet weaving sites.

Ark or Citadel of Tabriz
Ark-e Tabriz in Persian (also called Masjid-e Alishah, Arg-e Alishah) is the impressive remainder of a great and imposing building in the town. The Arg, a huge and crumbling brick citadel, is a notable landmark that was built in the early 14th century on the site of a massive mosque which collapsed over 500 years ago, and which must been one of the largest ever constructed.

Inside the Citadel there is nothing except two arches and an indication of the position of the mehrab; Ali Shah's court has been covered with ignoble buildings, the sanctuary walls have been rebuilt and propped up, and it is hard to believe that any part of this place was ever a mosque.

Constitution House
The Constitution House is located next to the Tabriz grand bazaar, on Motahari Ave. During the years which led to the Constitutional Revolution and afterwards, the house was used as the gathering place of the leaders, activists, and the sympathizers of the movement, among them Sattar Khan, Baqer Khan, Seqatoleslam and Haji Mirza Aqa Farshi.


Shah Gholi Park The two-story building was constructed in 1868 by Haj Vali Me'mar-e Tabrizi. It has numerous rooms and halls. The most beautiful part of the house is a skylight and a corridor decorated with colorful glasses and mirrors.

Blue Mosque
The Blue Mosque (or Masjid-e Kaboud) on the north side of town, is a 15th-century structure destroyed partially by one of Tabriz's recurrent earthquakes. The entrance portal with its two minarets appears to have been connected with the main prayer hall (Shabestan) under the largest cupola of the mosque, by means of vaulted corridor. On both sides along the corridor, there stand the remains of the chambers with vaulted roofs. The walls of the mosque have been riveted with marble slabs and decorated with superb mosaic tiles. Some of the blue mosaics in the mosque's portal are heavily damaged and half missing.

Shah Goli
Do not miss El Goli (former Shah Goli), a pleasant hillside garden and park around an artificial lake to the area of 54,675 square meters. El Goli, only 4 km south of downstream Tabriz, is so lovely a place that it deserves an illustration.

It is a popular weekend resort for the locals. A hill in the eastern side of the park leads down to the pool with steps, and a fountain from top of the hill flows down to the pool. In the center of the pool there is a grand hexagonal building. The pool itself is said to have been built during the reign of Aq Qoyunlu kings. However, it was extended by the Safavids.

Bazaar
Strolling in the center of Tabriz, one is reminded very forcibly that it is a commercial city: one cannot miss its very large and 15th-century covered bazaar. It is already much diminished in its variety of goods, but still a great place for getting hopelessly lost amid its dusty architectural splendors. Its architectural style, numerous caravansaries, mosques, and schools have added further beauty and glory to this complex.


Bazar of Tabriz Exact information on the history and origin of the bazaar is not available; however, historical buildings such as the Jam's Mosque, Talebieh School, and Sadeqieh School indicate that the complex is one of the oldest structures of the city. The present structure of bazaar dates back to the closing years of the Zand dynasty (1750-1779 A.D.).

Churches
From the earliest days of Christianity there has been a sizable Armenian community in Tabriz, and the city boasts a number of churches, including one mentioned by Marco Polo on his travels.

Nowadays, Tabriz has six churches, the most important of which are: Saint Serkis Church, located in Armenian quarter of Tabriz, Baron Avak, which was renovated in 1845; probably the most interesting and the oldest but substantially rebuilt Church of St. Mary (Kelesa-ye Maryam-e Moghaddas) which was completed in 1785, on the corner of North Shari-ati Ave. and Jomhuri Ave; Able Mary Church which was built in 1910 and is on Miar Miar quarter of Tabriz.
- See more at: http://iranchamber.com/cities/tabriz/ta ... xbLSD.dpuf
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Location: Tabriz, East Azarbayjan

Walking path length: -

Days of trip: 2-3 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need about 8 hr driving from Tehran to Tabriz)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: May to October

Daily time visit: No limit

Difficulty level: Easy

Requirements: Guide or GPS track...

Legal permission need: No


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: No

Lost risk: No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Yes


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Hotel: Yes

Village: Located in Tabriz city

Shop: Yes

Gasoline: Yes


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How to get there:
1- Go to west terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus to Tabriz (Also can use train or airplane) ( Distance from Tehran to Tabriz is 620 km)


Nearest airport: Tabriz airport

Nearest train station: Tabriz station


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Re: Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Feb 12, 2014 11:20 am

Blue Mosque (Masjede Kabod) - Tabriz
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Saint Mary Church of Tabriz
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Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex
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Two historical sites of Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Mar 26, 2014 11:45 am

Two historical sites of Tabriz

Azarbaijan Museum is the main archeological and historical museum of Tabriz, East Azarbaijan province, in northwest Iran.
Apart from National Museum of Iran in Tehran, Azarbaijan Museum has the largest collection belonging to different periods of Iran’s history, Iranbudgettour.com reported.
Established in April 1958, the museum consists of three major halls, a yard, office quarters and a library. It displays objects discovered from excavations in the region, as well as artworks and sculptures.
Its library contains more than 2,500 books, including handwritten and printed books on history, archeology, art and Iranian culture.
The museum has three galleries. The first gallery, on the ground floor, bears the oldest remains from 5th millennium BC until Sassanian dynasty (212-656 AD). Relics include rhytons, two skeletons (male and female) and a carved 3-ton marble known as Bismillah-Stone on the ground floor.
The second gallery consists of two parts: one for Islamic archeology and another for coins and seals. Part one involves potteries dating back to 10th century until the 19th. The coins of this gallery (part two) start from Achaemenid coins and end with Qajarid coins.
The displayed seals and stamps date from 3rd millennium BC to the Islamic era.
The third gallery, in which sculptures made by Ahad Husseini are displayed, is in the basement. They are made of plaster and represent the sculptor’s own image about the fate of mankind in 20th century.
The museum’s yard exhibits stone figurines, statues, rams and inscriptions.

El Goli
El Goli (meaning “people’s pool” in local dialect) is a pleasant hillside garden and park around an artificial lake with an area of 54,675 square meters in East Azarbaijan.
Located southeast of Tabriz, it is a popular weekend resort for the locals. A hill on the eastern side of the park leads down to the pool via a set of steps, and a fountain from the top of the hill flows down to the pool. In the center of the pool is a grand two-storied hexagonal building, resembling a small peninsula.
The water garden’s artificial lake was not built by excavating but by raising artificial terraces that are concealed beneath plantings of poplars and willows, so that the lake appears to float above its landscape. Due to humidity and aging, in 1967, El Goli’s hexagonal building was severely damaged. However, by 1970, an identical structure, following its original design, was built in its place.
Its origins are not quite clear. It was constructed at least as early as the late 18th century and added to by local governors over the years. The pool itself is said to have been built during the reign of Aq Qoyunlu kings. However, it was expanded upon by the Safavids.
In the era of the Qajars, the pool was practically filled with sand and gravel until it was ultimately taken up for restoration.
El Goli was originally a village on the outskirts of Tabriz, but with the advancement and urbanization of Tabriz, it was gradually absorbed by the city.
The purpose of El Goli’s pool seemed to provide the villagers with a source of water for irrigating their fields. By constructing El Goli Boulevard (Shahid Bakeri), which separates El Goli Park from the old El Goli Village, the village gradually became less attended to and today is considered a small neighborhood within the bigger city.
On a positive note though, such lack of attentiveness toward the former El Goli Village has enabled it to maintain much of its simple and traditional fabric and structure.
El Goli has always been a popular spot for the locals, especially during the warmer months and has also attracted tourists due to construction of a 20-story hotel in its vicinity.

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Enterprising Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Mar 26, 2014 7:19 pm

Enterprising Tabriz

Tabriz has had a spell as the Persian capital and was until quite recently the second major city of Iran.

Although the early history of Tabriz is shrouded in legend and mystery, the town’s origins are believed to date back to distant times, perhaps even before the Sassanian rule (224-637).

Tabriz was the capital of Azarbaijan in 3rd century AD and again under the Mongol Dynasty (1220-1380), though for some time Maragheh supplanted it. In 1392, after the end of the Mongol rule, the town was sacked by Teimur. It was soon restored under the Turkmen tribe of Qara Qoyunlu who established a short-lived local dynasty, Iranicatours reported.

Under the Safavids (1502-1722), it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Safavid kings. Shah Tahmasb moved the capital to Qazvin because of the vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks.

The town then went into a period of decline and was fought over by Persians, Ottomans and Russian, and struck by earthquake and disease. However, the enterprising nature of its people have helped revived its economy as well as its social dynamism.

Some of the landmarks and aspects of life in Tabriz are listed below.

Museum of Azarbaijan

This museum contains an interesting ethnological display, including archeological items discovered during regional excavations, such as Hassanlou. It presents a clear and detailed picture of the transition of traditional Iranian society into modern times.

Churches

From the earliest days of Christianity, a sizeable Armenian community inhabited Tabriz. The city boasts of a number of churches. The most interesting is the old but substantially rebuilt Church of Saint Mary near the bazaar. Three other churches, such as the St. Serkis Cathedral are close to each other in the southern part of town.

Tabriz was occupied by Russians several times in the first half of this century, including most of the two world wars.

Citadel of Tabriz

This huge and crumbling brick citadel was built in early 14th century, on the site of a massive mosque that collapsed more than 500 years ago. In those times, criminals were hurled from the peak of the citadel into a ditch below. According to a local legend, a woman was saved from death by the parachute-like effect of her full-body veil.

While this remarkable building serves as an ideal landmark, it is permanently fenced off due to restoration.

Tabriz was devastated by several earthquakes in 858, 1041 and 1721. As a result, only few of its numerous monuments have survived today.

Literature

Tabriz has a special place in Persian literature, as the following verses from some of Iran’s most eminent poets illustrate:

Oh camel driver, have the cargo unloaded,

For Tabriz is the neighborhood of the beloved. ― Molana

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,

who was always alert and awake at night. ― Sa’di

The prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad Hussein Shahriar was born in Tabriz.

The music and folk songs of Tabriz are also popular.

Its handicrafts, particularly the Tabriz rug, are famous worldwide. Its culture and social values reflect the influence of what prevails across Iran.

Azari Food

Azarbaijanis, especially people from Tabriz, are famous for their delicious cuisine. Its restaurants are well known for serving different kind of Azeri food. However, the best taste of traditional food is prepared and served in houses.

Tabriz food industries are famous for chocolate manufacturing. That could be the reason to honor the city as the Chocolate City of Iran.

Photo: El-goli Park in Tabriz

(Source: Iran Daily)
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Re: Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Sun May 25, 2014 4:29 am

Constitution House

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Re: Tabriz

Postby Vanessa » Tue Aug 26, 2014 9:32 am

Parvaneh! Your post is full of information. I like your all posts. I’ve been there once but I don’t had such detailed information. After reading your post I become aware of all features of Tabriz. Now I want to visit this city again.
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Re: Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Aug 27, 2014 11:03 am

Vanessa wrote:Parvaneh! Your post is full of information. I like your all posts. I’ve been there once but I don’t had such detailed information. After reading your post I become aware of all features of Tabriz. Now I want to visit this city again.


I am glad that the information is useful for you :)
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Re: Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Sun Dec 28, 2014 12:10 pm

Tabriz with more than 1 million 700 thousand population and the second largest industrial city and the country 's third most populous city in Iran. Its height is 1,340 m above sea level with an area of ​​approximately 11,800 square kilometers in the central area and the northeast region of Azerbaijan and 619 kilometers from West Lake is located in Tehran . Like the majority of people in Tabriz East Azerbaijan Shiites and speak Azeri Turkish . But the city's Sunni and minority communities also exist. Tabriz old, " Shhrbagh " has been known for some documents from Tabriz called " Towers " , " Tvrzh " , " bias " and " Dvrzh " is also mentioned .
Tabriz history before the advent of Islam Vgman filled with suspicion and even conflict. , But after the advent of Islam , the city has developed a lot in a wide range of Islamic rule " knob Salam " is famous . Then the silk route , linking the East with the West and the economic boom that led to the founding of markets and house the world's largest expanse of space is covered .
Tabriz Foundation and the appellation name remains legendary . About building and Tabriz appellation " Hamdullah Mostofi " and " Hamavi " wrote : Tabriz monument of Harun al-Rashid 's wife Zubaydah . He was sick with ague ; has lived in the neighborhood for several days , the weather is mild and pleasing the eroded condition . That's why he has to build a town site and named it " micro tab " to share.

As initially mentioned , history Tabriz was always carried an aura of ambiguity . Even in the early advent of Islam in the Arab invasion of Azerbaijan , Tabriz name can not be seen . The only detailed notes and documentation that during the caliphate of Mutawakkil the Abbasid dynasty Rvadyan Tabriz, a village in the town of Barrow pulled away . Elapsed since the events of Tabriz became bittersweet . Those which Tabriz is the history of the synopsis reads:
In the fourth century , " Hamavi " , famous Azerbaijani city of Tabriz sing. " Abu Hvql " 367 and " Ibn Mskvbh " 421 and " Naser Khosrow " In 438 , the largest and most prosperous city of Tabriz, Azerbaijan readers. 618 years of Mongol army reached the gates of Tabriz , but arrangements worth appreciating the great city of Tabriz, a wild Division Mongol invasion and keeps people safe from Tabriz to afford the property, the city abandoned to the destruction and devastation .

At the time of the Mongol Ghazan Khan , Tabriz is a special glory . " Khwaja Rashid al-Din Fadlallah, " Minister scholar Ilkhan " quarter- Rashidi, " he established the largest science center in its time - is cultural . The city has spent several golden periods in history . The capital, Vlyhdnshyny during the period of flourishing trade , economic, scientific , artistic and ...
When Tabriz , causing tremendous transformation in the field of art , which today boasts of its course, adorn the museums of the world. Men and women have come from this city famous . Mullah Kaaba Rome , meeting mystics , poets , scholars and large , the only reason Tabriz is a city that is the tomb of poet laureate . Khaghani tomb , hammam , tar and other early leaders spoke finally , sweet prince , who lie in that place .

Tabriz is very vulnerable in terms of tourism and ecotourism in terms of what is significant in terms of the diversity of antiquities . Although the cold weather season tourism in the region has made it difficult , but in the months of May to September, the weather has been pleasant , and promise memorable travel .
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Shopping of Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Jan 26, 2015 6:07 am

Shopping centers are mostly located in city center, including Grand Bazaar of Tabriz, pedestrian malls on Tarbiyat street, Shahnaz street and Ferdowsi street. Also, there are some malls and a lot of elegant & luxurious boutiques of jewelry, rugs, clothes, handcrafts, confectionery and nuts, home appliances and so on in Abressan intersection, Roshdiyeh and Valiasr districts, the most famous of which is Laleh Park shopping center .

Tabriz roofed Bazzar


The special feature of Tabriz malls is that most of them are designated to a particular order, such as home appliances, jewelry, shoes, clothes, wedding ceremonies, ladies/babies/men specialties, leather products, handcrafts, agricultural products, computers, electronic components, industrial equipment, piping equipment, chemical materials, agricultural machines, stationery, books, rugs, construction stuff and others.

Laleh Park shopping center

Likewise, there are seasonal/occasional shopping fairs opened mainly in Tabriz International Exhibition Center too.
Tabriz International Exhibition Center

Tabriz International Exhibition Center which is located in eastern part of the city holds tens of exhibition based on yearly schedule. The most famous fair is TEXPO which is a general trade fair and established on 1992 and normally holds on August 4–9 every year.
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Handicrafts of Tabriz

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Jan 26, 2015 6:11 am

East Azerbaijan is one of the great handicraft centers of Iran. Several handicrafts like carpet, Glim, Varni, Shawl, Clay dishes, Ceramic, Leather shoemaking are producing in this province. As most featured ones can be named as carpet weaving, wooden arts (Khatam, moarragh …) traditional hand weaving (woolen and silk jajim), traditional printing, glass art, metal art and …

Carpet


According to major sources, in 3rd century AD, Azerbaijan especially Tabriz was the largest center of carpet weaving, mainly in Seljuq and Ilkhanid kingdom, it was common. Based on miniature painting of Khamse Nezami manufacture, Ghasem Ali’s works, and some other works which shows carpet design and weaving method, it is understood that carpet weaving evoluted in period of Safavid and Timurid dynasty. At that time, figure of animals, prayer rug, floral, bergamot especially Shah Abbas Figure got prevalent. Color variety, using silk improved quality, beauty and elegance of carpets. Still sample of them are exhibited in most museums all over the world.
Carpet weaving art is saved with Azerbaijan carpet weavers and businessmen’s ambition. Nowadays it is popular in major cities and villages; in addition it is significant handcraft of that region.
Carpet production is more important and from exporting point of view it is placed in high level. That is why this industry is prevalent in most rural areas as single weaving and as manufactory form in big cities.
Annually carpets in various design and colors are presented to inner and outer shops.



Varnished


One of the most prominent handcrafts of Azerbaijan nomads is sort of Kilim which has solitary side like carpet has no lint shaped and is formed by passing wool strings around the wrap and twist wrap yarn, called varnished. It is kind of mat as simple and light as Kilim. Also it is as beautiful as kilim. Varnished is woven in different types: woolen, silky and mix of them. Some ties are made of wool and some others are silk. The bowstrings are made of cotton wrap and appropriate uniform. The patter that varnished has inspired is that the design comes from nomad women and girls’ natural habitat. Also regional animal shapes as lion, wolf, bear, dog, and deer are being seen on them.

Kilim


Kilim is a kind of handcrafts which is popular and fashionable in city life as floor -covering made of silk, wool…
In traditional manner wool was colored naturally by means of using specific plants for that reason and sometimes to have an old view Kilim got washed by tae or walnut green shell. It is different from carpet in type of weaving and size. Unlike carpet, kilim has no sketch design. It is made of sense term. Seldom ever is it found in size of 3*4 and bigger.

Textile production


Hand weaving textiles specially brocade and silk are popular from past times, in Iran and east Azerbaijan. As matter of fact safavid period got well-known as Golden Age of Prosperity. At that time silk, golden and velvet clothes produced sample of which are being kept in Astan Ghods e Razavi museum and Esfehan museum.



Silver work


Silver-work is a well-liked in Tabriz from years ago. Since 20 years ago there were about 25 active silver manufactories with 100 silver workers. This unique art is going to perish because of owners approached to another vocation.



Clay and Ceramic


Ceramic productions are made in some workshops in Tabriz and Zonuz. Zonuz ceramic craftsmen use particular kind of soil. Like zonuz, ceramic industry in Shabestar has a long period experience and productions are distributed to all over the country. Recently pottery workshop classes are hold in caltural heritage traditional art center in east Azerbaijan.


Needlework

This art has been common in Mameghan, located in 50 km destination of west of Tabriz. In recent years, according to less income, artists got out of interest. But it got prosperous with cultural art organization. Except that rayon was replaced by silk.

Basket weaving


What is widespread among people in Tabriz is taking basket for shopping. So it caused this art get well-liked. For weaving basket flexible branches of sour cherry, willow …. In Maraghe and surrounding villages, very delicate baskets are woven. In some other cities like Marand, Bahram wheat stems are being used.


Traditional printing


Batik is a cloth that is traditionally made using a manual wax- resist dying technique, which was in used in Indonesia, Thailand, and India. In Iran it is familiar in Tabriz and Osku by name of Kolagh that is already popular.
In this manner, Wax-resist dying in fabric, as an ancient art form in which linen was soaked in wax and scratched using a sharp tool to transfer all designs and colors on silk cloths. An especial feature is creation of line streaks and color breaks as result of fractures on cloths.

Traditional painting


Iranian traditional paintings are like a small world of ever green flowers with refreshing breeze and dignity humans attract each visitor to Hilarity and amusement. Since past time, Tabriz has been house of artists and painters like Bezad. In 928 AH, Behzad and some other artists immigrated to Tabriz and it got result of creation painting school and revolution in this manner in Tabriz. School in Tabriz used mostly natural shapes as clefts, trees and sky. The size of them was a bit larger instead number was decreased. The organs were in introverted state.

Wood carving


Wood carving as an art and crafts in which figures featured in protuberant shape and is mostly done on wood.

Leather production
Tabriz leather and handmade shoes has a good reputation due to best stitches and delicate shape.
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