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Karun River

PostPosted: Mon Sep 23, 2013 6:10 am
by Shahram
Introduction: The Kārun (also spelled as Karoun) is Iran's most effluent, and the only navigable, river. It is 450 miles (720 km) long. It rises in the Zard Kuh mountains of the Bakhtiari district in the Zagros Range, receiving many tributaries, such as the Dez and the Kuhrang, before passing through the capital of the Khuzestan Province of Iran, the city of Ahwaz.

The Karun continues toward the Persian Gulf, forking into two primary branches on its delta: the Bahmanshir and the Haffar that joins the Shatt al-Arab (Arvand Rud in Persian), emptying into the Persian Gulf. The important Island of Abadan is located between these two branches of the Karun. The port city of Khorramshahr is divided from the Island of Abadan by the Haffar branch.

In the Biblical tradition, Karun is to be identified with Pishon, one of the four rivers of Eden/Paradise. The others being Tigris, Euphrates and the Karkheh ("Gihon" of the Biblical story). In the early classical times, Karun was known as the Pasitigris, which may be pointing etymologically to the source of the Biblical name, Pishon. The modern medieval and modern name, Karun, is a corruption of the name, Kuhrang which is still maintained by one of the two primary tributaries of the Karun.

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It originates in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran, on the slopes of 14,921-foot (4,548 m) Zard-Kuh. The river flows south and west through several prominent mountain ridges, and receives additional water from the Vanak on the south bank and the Bazuft on the north. These tributaries add to the catchment of the river above the Karun-4 Dam. Downstream 25 kilometres (16 mi), the Karun widens into the reservoir formed by the Karun-3 Dam. The Khersan flows into an arm of the reservoir from the southeast. The river passes through this reservoir and flows through a narrow canyon, now in a northwest direction, past Izeh, eventually winding into the Sussan Plain. The Karun then turns north into the reservoir of Shahid Abbaspour Dam (Karun-1), which floods the river's defile to the southwest. The Karun flows southwest into the impoundment of Masjed Soleyman Dam (Karun-2), then turns northwest. Finally, it leaves the foothills and flows south past Shushtar and its confluence with the Dez. It then bends southwest and bisects the city of Ahvaz, and south through farmland to its mouth on the Shatt Al-Arab river at Khorramshahr, where its water, together with that of the Tigris and Euphrates, turns sharply southwest to flow to the Persian Gulf.


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Location: Khouzestan Province



Walking path length: Depends on your plan

Days of trip: 3-4 Days from Tehran to Tehran

Best time to visit:

Daily time visit: No limit, but in summer middle of the day maybe hot

Difficulty level: Depends on your plan

Requirements: (Depends on your plan:) Guide or GPS track, water, food, warm and waterproof clothes and tent, waterproof shoes, satellite phone, headlamp

Legal permission need: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: There are a few number of wild animals like bear, wolf and leopard in this area. But no human attack has been reported.

Lost risk: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115 but rescue teams need a long time to find you because there is no road there.

GSM Mobile Antenna: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No


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Hotel: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No

Village: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No

Shop: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No

Gasoline: Depends on your plan maybe Yes or No


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How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or south terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus ticket to Shahre Kord or Yasuj (Depends on your plan)


Nearest airport: No airport less than 100 km (Nearest is Shahre kord airbport)

Nearest train station: No station less than 100 km


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Location on map:




GPS elevation profile:



Pictures:





More pictures:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karun

Karoun: Only Navigable River in Iran

PostPosted: Sun Mar 09, 2014 7:50 am
by Parvaneh
Karoun River is Iran’s most effluent, and its only navigable, river.

It is 720 km long and originates in Zardkouh mountains of Bakhtiari district in the Zagros range, receiving many tributaries, such as the Dez and the Kouhrang, before passing through Ahvaz, the capital of Khuzestan province, HistoricalIran reported.
Karoun continues toward the Persian Gulf, forking into two primary branches on its delta: Bahmanshir and Haffar that join Arvandroud and empties into the Persian Gulf.
The important island of Abadan is located between these two branches of Karoun. The port city of Khorramshahr is divided from the island of Abadan by the Haffar branch.
Seasonal variations in rainfall show the lowest water level to be in October and the highest, as a result of combined precipitation and melting water, in April.

Divisions
Studies undertaken by a group of Belgian researchers indicate Karoun River has taken a central course, abandoning its westward course over the last 6,000 years.
Formerly the Karoun had a lower course that was separated from and to the east of Arvandroud.
There are three old riverbeds that branch off at the left of Karoun; they are known as Shatt Al-Qadimi, Shatt Al-Ameh and Bahmanshir River.
Bahmanshir River delimits the eastern edge of the island of Abadan. In 1765, however, the river changed to its present course through the apparently artificial Haffar Channel.
According to the geographer Al-Maqdisi, this channel was dug in 986 to facilitate water linkup between Ahvaz and Basra.
This change resulted in frontier disputes between the Ottoman Empire and Iran, disputes that were settled by the Treaty of Erzurum (1847), giving Iran access to the eastern bank of Arvandroud and the right to use the waterway.
Karoun up to Ahvaz was opened to international navigation in 1888 and boat services were later established between Ahvaz and Band Qir.
Shipping on the lower course of Karoun has become increasingly important owing to oil drilling and refining in the vicinity.
To increase the water supply of Isfahan, a dam and tunnel on the river were completed in 1971.
The river banks consist of seasonally flooded arable land with scattered ponds and permanent marshy areas, on the east bank.
Most of the area dries out completely in summer, but a few of the deeper pools and meandering watercourses provide a habitat for waterfowl.
The region is a very important wintering area for geese, teal, cranes and ducks. The occasional bull shark periodically patrols the river.
In two of several competing theories about the origins and location of the Garden of Eden, Karoun is presumed to be Gihon River that is described in the Biblical book of Genesis.
The strongest of these theories propounded by archeologist Juris Zarins places the Garden of Eden at the northern tip of Persian Gulf, fed by the four rivers: Tigris, Euphrates, Gihon Karoun and Pishon.
The name of the river is derived from the mountain peak, Kouhrang, which serves as its source.

Karoun Dams
One of the main attractions of Karoun River is the White Bridge that stretches half a kilometer and was constructed in 1936.
It is a suspension bridge and consists of two steel arcs and sits approximately 13 meters above the river. Several dams were built or are under construction on Karoun.
Shahid Abbaspour (Karoun I) Dam spans a crest length of 383 meters and a height of 203 meters while Karoun II Dam has a height of 130 meters.
The construction of Karoun II resulted in much of the Susa historical plain in the Khuzestan province, the historical birthplace of Elamite and Achaemenid civilizations, along with all its invaluable archeological sites, to be submerged.
Karoun III Dam spans a crest length of 462 meters and a height of 205 meters. Experts of Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization (ICHHTO) were able to save the stone lions and tombstones in a graveyard in Khuzestan, which were in danger of being submerged by the rising waters of Karoun II Dam.
The stone lions and tombstones of Zir Pass in the Izeh region of Khuzestan province, which are symbols of the bravery of Bakhtiari heroes 200 years ago, were finally transferred to a safe place.
Prior to the construction of this dam, 18 sites from the Epipaleolithic period (20,000-10,000 BCE) had been identified, including 13 caves and four rock shelters in the region.
The river valley also has a large number of rock-carved reliefs, graves, ancient caves and other remains from the Elamite Era (2700 BCE-645 BCE), many of which are now underwater.
Karoun IV, Masjed Soleiman and Gotvand are other dams of Karoun.

Historical Bridge
In 2003, Shadravan Bridge on Karoun River, which had withstood the river’s heavy floods for years, was to be restored and reconstructed.
The bridge was once 550 meters long and included 35 spans before, but due to negligence, only parts of it and 30 of its spans existed, three of which had been completely restored.
ICHHTO intends to restore the bridge based on its Sassanian style.
In 2009, an Italian team specializing in lighting design had been invited to bring sparkling nights back to Karoun River.
The team headed by Piero Castiglioni was to work on designing luminaries and lighting systems alongside Karoun River and the numerous bridges over it, as well as the public parks in the city.

Source: Iran Daily

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Karoun River as tourist spot

PostPosted: Tue Mar 11, 2014 1:47 pm
by Parvaneh
Karoun River as tourist spot

Karoun River and the tributaries form the largest water basin in Iran covering an area of 60,000 square kilometers.

The 720-km long Karoun arises in Zardkouh in the Zagros Mountains and enters Khuzestan after flowing through the provinces of Chaharmahal-Bakhtiari and Kohkilouyeh-Bouyerahmad. On its way to the Persian Gulf it flows through the two major cities of Khuzestan, that is, Ahwaz and Khorramshahr, before joining the Arvand-Round waterway, which is also the confluence of the two great Mesopotamian Rivers, the Tigris and the Euphrates. The Karoun forks into two primary branches on its delta: the Bahmanshir and the Haffar before emptying into the Arvand Roud. The important Island of Abadan is located between these two branches of the Karoun. The port city of Khorramshahr is divided from the Island of Abadan by the Haffar branch.

The northern and eastern parts of the Karoun basin are mountainous, while to its southwest lies the Khuzestan plain.

Fertile lands dotted with small and big lakes are found along the course of this river. These lagoons are the winter habitats of the migratory birds from Siberia. The construction of several dams on the Karoun River and its tributaries has contributed to the building of many hydroelectric projects as development of agricultural lands following the victory of the Islamic Revolution in 1979.



The Karoun is ideal spot for boating and canoeing. The Shalo-Mongasht region is one of the most beautiful areas of Khuzestan province. It covers 13,000 hectares and was declared a protected zone in 1998. The mountain peaks of Khuzestan are snow covered during winter, while the climate on the plain is hot and humid. The vegetation is also varied, and among the important trees is Iranian prized chestnut. In addition, the region abounds with various other trees including almond, wild fig, thyme, and wild celery. Among the animal life of the mountains of Khuzestan mention could be made of the leopard, brown bear, Iranian squirrel, and wolves. Bird life includes partridge, swallow and various types of birds of prey such as falcons and hawks.

Dear listeners, it is worth knowing that the Shalo-Mangosht protected zone has three big villages, named Shivand, Posht-e Asiab and Noushivand, through which the Shivand River passes.

The Karoun 3 Dam is located near Shivand village, which is often called a hidden paradise since its natural environment has largely remained untouched. The Shimbar area which covers 54,000 hectares is also another protected area of Khuzestan P\province. This region enjoys humid and mild weather condition with a height of 540 to 2100 meters above sea level.

Mountainous forests, high peaks, chestnut trees and the vast lake of Sad in the middle of the region is considered as the features of this region. The existence of a beautiful lagoon with a vast space of 19 hectares at the center of the region has cast a special image on the area. It is proper to know that Haft Shahidan region with a space of around 9600 hectares has been registered as a protected area since 2002.

http://english.irib.ir/radioculture/ira ... roun-river


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