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Tomb of Cyrus the Great

Helpful information about tombs of famous people in Iran like name, introduction, maps, requirements and...

Tomb of Cyrus the Great

Postby Mehdi » Mon Nov 11, 2013 9:40 am

Introduction: Cyrus II of Persia (Old Persian: KUURUUSHA[5] Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش بزرگ c. 600 BC or 576 BC–530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great, also known as Cyrus the Elder, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire. Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East, expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus. From the Mediterranean sea and Hellespont in the west to the Indus River in the east, Cyrus the Great created the largest empire the world had yet seen. His regal titles in full were The Great King, King of Persia, King of Anshan, King of Media, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad, King of the four corners of the World. He also pronounced what some consider to be one of the first historically important declarations of human rights via the Cyrus Cylinder sometime between 539 and 530 BC.

The reign of Cyrus the Great lasted between 29 and 31 years. Cyrus built his empire by conquering first the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire and eventually the Neo-Babylonian Empire. Either before or after Babylon, he led an expedition into central Asia, which resulted in major campaigns that were described as having brought "into subjection every nation without exception". Cyrus did not venture into Egypt, as he himself died in battle, fighting the Massagetae along the Syr Darya in December 530 BC. He was succeeded by his son, Cambyses II, who managed to add to the empire by conquering Egypt, Nubia, and Cyrenaica during his short rule.
Cyrus the Great respected the customs and religions of the lands he conquered.

It is said that in universal history, the role of the Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus lies in its very successful model for centralized administration and establishing a government working to the advantage and profit of its subjects. In fact, the administration of the empire through satraps and the vital principle of forming a government at Pasargadae were the works of Cyrus. What is sometimes referred to as the Edict of Restoration (actually two edicts) described in the Bible as being made by Cyrus the Great left a lasting legacy on the Jewish religion where because of his policies in Babylonia, he is referred to by the people of the Jewish faith, as "the anointed of the Lord".

Cyrus the Great is also well recognized for his achievements in human rights, politics, and military strategy, as well as his influence on both Eastern and Western civilizations. Having originated from Persis, roughly corresponding to the modern Iranian province of Fars, Cyrus has played a crucial role in defining the national identity of modern Iran. Cyrus and, indeed, the Achaemenid influence in the ancient world also extended as far as Athens, where many Athenians adopted aspects of the Achaemenid Persian culture as their own, in a reciprocal cultural exchange.



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Location: Pasargad, Fars province

Walking path length: No need to walking

Days of trip: 3 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need about 12 hr driving from Tehran to Pasargad)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: May to October

Daily time visit: No permission at night

Difficulty level: Easy

Requirements: Guide or GPS track, water, food, warm and waterproof clothes and...

Legal permission need: No


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: No

Lost risk: No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Yes


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Hotel: Yes

Village: Located near a city

Shop: In Yes

Gasoline: Yes


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How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or south terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus to Marvdasht or Shiraz
3- Take a taxi to Pasargad


Nearest airport: Shiraz airport

Nearest train station: Shiraz station


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Location on map:





Pictures:

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More Pictures:

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Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae

Postby Parvaneh » Thu Jan 30, 2014 12:31 pm

The Tomb of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae is his burial place following his death in the summer of 530. Located in ancient Persia and in present day’s Fars province, it lies 43 kilometers from Persepolis and is one of Iran 's UNESCO World Heritage Sites. It is said to be the oldest base-isolated structure in the world. Despite having ruled over much of the ancient world, Cyrus the Great would design a tomb that depicts extreme simplicity and modesty when compared to those of other ancient kings and rulers.


The Tomb is simple in form, constructed of large, carefully dressed ashlar blocks set with precision and secured by dovetail clamps. It has six broad steps leading to the sepulcher. Whereas each of the three upper steps are 0.57 meters high, each of the lower ones are 1.05 meter high. The lowest step seems a bit taller as part of the foundation is exposed. On the northwest side a narrow doorway, 1.39 m high without the sill and 0.78 m wide, leads through a small passage to a chamber measuring 3.17 meters long, 2.11 meters wide and 2.11 meters high. The gabled stone roof is hollow. Around the Tomb were a series of columns although the original structure which they supported is no longer present.

The design of Cyrus' Tomb is credited to Mesopotamian or Elamite ziggurats, but the inner chamber is usually attributed to Urartu Tombs of an earlier period. The main decoration on the Tomb is a rosette design over the door within the gable. In general, the art and architecture found at Pasargadae exemplified the Persian synthesis of various traditions, drawing on precedents from Elam , Babylon , Assyria, and ancient Egypt , with the addition of some Anatolian influences.


Though there is no firm evidence identifying the Tomb as that of Cyrus, Greek historians tell us that Alexander III of Macedon believed it was. When Alexander looted and destroyed Persepolis , he paid a visit to the Tomb of Cyrus. Arrian, writing in the second century of the common era, recorded that Alexander commanded Aristobulus, one of his warriors, to enter the monument. Inside he found a golden bed, a table set with drinking vessels, a gold coffin, some ornaments studded with precious stones and an inscription on the Tomb. No trace of any such inscription survived and there is considerable disagreement to the exact wording of the text was. It is believed that it originally read “O man! I am Cyrus the Great, who gave the Persians an empire and was the king of Asia. Grudge me not therefore this monument.”

Another proposed, yet unconfirmed, theory is that the body of Cyrus (and his wife) did not lay inside the main chamber, but rather in a narrow crawl space that was discovered in 1959 in between the main chamber and pediment above. While the low ceiling of the structure’s interior can be attributed to the placement of this hollowed space, however, there is little evidence to suggest that the space actually housed any bodies.

During the Islamic conquest of Iran , the Arab armies came upon the Tomb and planned to destroy it, considering it to be in violation of the tenets of Islam. The caretakers of the grave managed to convince the Arab command that the Tomb was not built to honor Cyrus, but instead housed the mother of King Solomon, thus sparing it from destruction. As a result, the inscription in the Tomb was replaced by a verse of the Quran, and the Tomb became known as the Tomb of the mother of Solomon.


Pasargadae was first archaeologically explored by the German archaeologist Ernst Herzfeld in 1905, and in one excavation season in 1928, together with his assistant Friedrich Krefter. Recent research on Pasargadae ’s structural engineering has shown that Achaemenid engineers built the city to withstand a severe earthquake, what would today be classified as 7.0 on the Richter magnitude scale. The foundations are classified as having a base isolation design, much like what is presently used in countries for the construction of facilities, such as nuclear power plants, that require insulation from the effects of seismic activity.

There has been growing concern regarding the Sivand Dam, named after the nearby town of Sivand . Its placement between both the ruins of Pasargadae and Persepolis has many archaeologists and Iranians worried that the dam will flood these UNESCO World Heritage sites, although scientists involved with the construction say this is not obvious because the sites sit above the planned waterline. Of the two sites, Pasargadae is the one considered the most threatened. Of broadly shared concern to archaeologists is the effect of the increase in humidity caused by the lake. It is generally agreed that humidity created by it will speed up the destruction of Pasargadae.

http://historicaliran.blogspot.com/2012 ... gadae.html


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Re: Tomb of Cyrus the Great

Postby Parvaneh » Tue Apr 29, 2014 1:22 pm

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