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Tepe Sialk-Tapehaye Sialk-Syalk

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Tepe Sialk-Tapehaye Sialk-Syalk

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Dec 18, 2013 4:00 pm

Introduction: (Persian: تپه سیلک‎)The archaeological complex known as Tepe Sialk consists of two hills, about half a kilometer apart, and two cemeteries, known as A and B. The excavators have distinguished six main phases of occupation. What remained till nowadays are two cemeteries and large platforms, probably remains of ziggurats. The first activity on the site dates back to 8000 year BC, while the constructions itself seem to be connected with Zayandeh River Culture which developed in 6th millennium BC.

The oldest settlement has been identified in the northern hill and belongs to the first half of the fifth millennium BC. The inhabitants, primitive peasants, lived in simple huts, made of reeds and covered with mud. Among the finds are stone axes and objects made of bone.

In the second period, the villagers of the northern hill lived in houses, made of irregularly-shaped mud bricks. They were capable of making some primitive ceramics, which was made to resemble baskets. The dead were buried, painted red and laid down in a contracted position, under the floors of their houses.
The smiths had, by now, fully mastered their art; the quality of the metal objects of this age is higher than in the preceding period.
At the beginning of the fourth millennium, the northern hill was abandoned, and the southern hill was occupied, probably by descendants of the people who lived on the northern hill.

In this third period, the houses were made of rectangular bricks. The dead were still buried underneath the floors. The most impressive cultural advance was the introduction of the potter's wheel: the new ceramics, decorated with animal and human figures, were dazzlingly beautiful, comparable to the fourth millennium pottery of Susa. The smiths were now capable of handling silver, and people were trading with the inhabitants of Khuzestan: archaeologists have found shells. A great fire put an end to this town; it is possible that it was captured by enemies.

The fourth period was more or less contemporary with the Early Dynastic Period in southern Iraq, and lasted from about 3000 to 2500 BCE. Although the ceramics of this age were plainer than the pottery of the fourth millennium, there is no doubt that there had been great progress.

Cylinder seals prove that interregional trade flourished, there is evidence that the people had learned to read and write in a proto-Elamite cuneiform script, and the inhabitants were now capable of making bronze. The prosperity of this age can also be deduced from the construction of a ziggurat, which is the largest and tallest structure in the southern hill, and the oldest monument of this type in Iran. It had three platforms and was ascended from the south.

Iron from Tepe Sialk
The site appears to have been abandoned for the remainder of the Bronze Age, and when people started to settle again in c.1200 BC, the beginning of the fifth period, they may not have realized that they were actually living on an ancient ziggurat. After all, in thirteen centuries, the old bricks had eroded, and the hill consisted of a mixture of adobe, dirt, and a few visible architectural fragments - not enough to understand what it actually had been.

It seems that the new settlers leveled the top of the mound, to make space for a large, palace-like residence. The southern hill was surrounded by a wall. By now, people were able to melt iron and made an easily recognizable grayish type of pottery. The dead were buried on cemetery A, about 200 meters south of the southern hill.

The final, sixth period, started about 900 BCE, when the fifth town was destroyed. The conquerors build a new city on top of the old one, but otherwise, there is no continuity. For example, the newcomers buried their dead on cemetery B, about 250 meters west of the southern hill. It is possible that the invaders belonged to the great immigration of Iranian-speaking peoples. They were certainly the people who made the pots with the long-beaked sprouts for which Tepe Sialk is famous. Tepe Sialk was destroyed in the eighth century BCE.

The first excavation took place in 1933, and was directed by Roman Ghirshman; there were two further campaigns in 1934 and 1937. Seventy years later, a team of Iranian archaeologists led by Sadegh Malek Shahmirzadi launched the Sialk Reconsideration Project, investigated the two hills again (1999-2004).

Source:Tehrantimes


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Location: Kashan, Isfahan province

Days of trip: (Without air plane) 1-2 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need About 4 hr driving from Tehran to Kashan)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: No limit, but spring is b best time.

Daily time visit: No permission at night

Difficulty level: Easy

Requirements: (Depend on your plan) Guide or GPS track, water, food, warm and waterproof clothes and tent

Legal permission need: No


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: No

Lost risk: No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Yes


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Hotel: Yes

Shop: Yes

Gasoline: Yes

Village:


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How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or south terminal of buses in Tehran (more info), Also you can use train.
2- Take a bus ticket to Kashan.
3- Take a taxi to Tepe Sialk .


Nearest airport: Isfahan airport

Nearest train station: Kashan Station


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Location on map:



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Re: Tepe Sialk

Postby Parvaneh » Wed Dec 18, 2013 4:01 pm

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Sialk Ziggurat

Postby Parvaneh » Sun Jan 26, 2014 2:09 pm

The Sialk ziggurat is a large ancient archeological site near Kashan, tucked away in the suburbs, close to Fin Garden. The culture that inhabited this area has been linked to the the Zayandeh River Civilization.


The Sialk ziggurat has 3 platforms, and was built ca. 2900 BC. However, the earliest archeological remains of the north mound date back to the middle of the 6th millennium BC; i.e. about 7,500 years ago. A joint study between Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization, The Louvre, and Institute Francais de Recherche en Iran also verifies the oldest settlements in Sialk to date back to 5500–6000 BC.


Sialk is one of four ziggurats built by the Elamite civilization. The other three are Chogha Zanbil (1250 BC), the Susa ziggurat (1800 BC), and Haft Tepe [2] (1375 BC), all in Khuzestan. Sialk is the 32nd and most recent ziggurat to be discovered. Sialk, and the entire area around it, is thought to have first originated as a result of the pristine large water sources nearby that still run today. The Cheshmeye Soleiman Spring has been bringing water to this area from nearby mountains for thousands of years.


What remains of this 5000-year-old ziggurat is not in a favorable condition like many other ancient ruins in Iran. There are actually two structures at Sialk situated several hundred feet from each other. While the three platforms of the larger ziggurat however still remain in place, not much remains of the smaller structure. The Louvre has also excavated a cemetery near the structures that have been dated as far back as 7,500 years. What little is left of the two crumbling Sialk ziggurats is now threatened by the encroaching suburbs of the expanding city of Kashan. It is not uncommon to see kids playing soccer amid the ruins, while only several meters away lie the supposedly "off limit" 5,500-year-old skeletons unearthed at the foot of the ziggurat. Furthermore the area has been surrounded by houses that have been constructed illegally over the few past years.


The cultural strata in the northern mound of Sialk are about 14 meters thick. A number of stone, pottery and copper artifacts as well as seashells have been found there during previous research digs. A 170-centimeter wall comprising 13 courses of mud bricks was discovered during the first season of the new excavations, carried out by a joint Iranian and British archaeological team in 2008. It is one of the earliest examples of ancient Iranian architecture.


Archaeologists have already concluded that residents of Sialk had red and white meat as the main source of their nutritious protein. According to archaeological studies, the animal bones discovered in the area are of various farm and wild animals such as cow, ship, goat, gazelle, and ram. The abundance of the bones of farm animals in comparison to those of gazelle and ram shows that the residents consumed meat of farm animals as the main source of protein, and hunted occasionally.


Experts believe that Sialk dwellers had been making all of their tools and instruments by stone, but little by little they had started to use metal for making their implements. The artistic taste of these people has been found through the engraving on bones which had been carried out for the first time and through the designs on their pottery. As recent as 2007 a large pot was discovered inside the second perimeter of Tappe Sialk with the mouth of the pot measuring 120 centimeters in diameter.

Further investigating the site, a mysterious burial ritual performed 9,000 years ago was uncovered. Based on this ritual, four bodies were burned at a heat of 400 to 700 degrees. The ash and remains of the bodies were then buried in a jar. Traces of red petals remained in the jar; archeologists believe red flowers signified life and eternity in ancient Persia. “A burial ritual encompassing burning has never been observed in Iran,” said Hassan Fazeli, the director of Iran’s Archeology Research Center. “It makes the rare discovery of great importance.”

Tappe Sialk was first excavated by a team of European archeologists headed by Roman Ghirshman in the 1930s. Grishman observed, “People of Sialk, near Kashan, were the most ancient plainsmen of the world, evidence from whose lives have been found over there. People of the time (the 5th millennium BC) were familiar with the textile industry, and all of them, both men and women, were interested in making and using ornamentations.” He considered discovered bills in Tappe Sialk belonging to the third millennium B.C are evidence of organizations for managing financial issues and accountings.

His extensive studies were followed by D.E. McCown, Y. Majidzadeh, P. Amieh, up until the 1970s, and recently reviewed by Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization in 2002 (led by Shah-Mirzadi, PhD, U of Penn). But like the thousands of other Iranian historical ruins, the treasures excavated here eventually found their way to museums such as The Louvre, The British Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, and private collectors.

http://historicaliran.blogspot.com.ar/2 ... gurat.html

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Re: Tepe Sialk

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Apr 07, 2014 7:49 am

This ancient hill is located 3 km to the south of Kashan. Studying the clay dishes discovered in this area revealed that its civilization dates back to 4500 BC. Other objects discovered in the area include clay tablets belonging to Elamite era. Near the central hill of Sialk, two graveyards, conventionally called A and B, have been discovered. The objects found from the excavations include iron weapons, swords, lances and piped dishes. The objects found in graveyard A date back to 2000 years BC and those in graveyard B date back to early first millennium or late second millennium BC.

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Tappeh-ye Sialk

Postby Parvaneh » Sun May 04, 2014 11:49 am

Tappeh-ye Sialk
The richest archaeological site in central Iran is the mound of the Tappeh-ye Sialk. This site was excavated by Ghirshman in the 1930s. The excavations revealed that the site is more than 7000 years old.

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Sialk ziggurats

Postby Parvaneh » Sun May 25, 2014 12:58 pm

Sialk ziggurats are part of a large ancient site near Kashan in Isfahan province, tucked away in the suburbs, close to Fin Garden.

The culture dominating this area has been linked to Zayandehroud Civilization. The ziggurats have 3 platforms and were built around 2900 BCE, HistoricalIran reported.
However, the earliest archeological remains of the north mound date back to the middle of the 6th millennium BCE; i.e. about 7,500 years ago.
A joint study by Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization, Louvre Museum and Institute Francais de Recherche en Iran also verifies the oldest settlements in Sialk to date back to 5,500-6,000 BCE.

Sialk antiquity

Sialk’s ziggurats were built by the Elamite civilization. The other three are Choghazanbil (1250 BCE), Susa Ziggurat (1800 BCE) and Haft Tappeh (1375 BCE), all in Khuzestan province.
It is the 32nd and the most recent ziggurats discovered. Sialk and the surrounding areas are believed to have been the large water source that still runs today.
Cheshme-ye Soleiman Spring has been bringing water to this area from nearby mountains for thousands of years. What remains of these 5,000-year-old ziggurats is not in a favorable condition like many other ancient ruins of Iran.
The two structures at Sialk are situated several hundred feet from each other.
While the three platforms of the larger ziggurat remain intact, not much remains of the smaller structure.
The Louvre has also excavated a cemetery near these structures.
What little is left of the two crumbling Sialk ziggurats is now threatened by the encroaching suburbs of the expanding Kashan city.
It is not uncommon to see kids playing soccer amid the ruins, while only several meters away lie the supposedly “off-limit” 5,500-year-old skeletons unearthed at the base of the ziggurat.
The area is also surrounded by houses constructed illegally over the few past years.

Excavations

The cultural strata in the northern mound of Sialk are about 14 meters thick. A number of stone, pottery and copper artifacts as well as seashells have been found there during previous research digs.
A 170-centimeter wall comprising 13 courses of mud-bricks was discovered during the first phase of the new excavations, carried out by a joint Iranian and British archeological team in 2008. It is one of the earliest examples of ancient Iranian architecture.
Archeologists have already concluded that residents of Sialk had red and white meat as the main source of protein.
According to archeological studies, animal bones discovered in the area are of farm and wild animals such as cow, sheep, goat, gazelle and ram.
The abundance of the bones of farm animals compared to those of gazelle and ram shows that the residents consumed meat of farm animals as the main source of protein, and hunted occasionally.
Experts believe Sialk dwellers made all of their tools with stone, but little by little they began to use metal for making their implements.
The artistry of these people is evident from the engravings on bones and designs on their pottery. As recent as 2007, a large pot was discovered inside the second perimeter of Sialk Tappeh with the mouth of the pot measuring 120 centimeters in diameter.

Mysterious burial ritual

Further investigations at the site revealed a mysterious burial ritual performed 9,000 years ago. Based on this ritual, four bodies were burned at a temperature of 400 to 700 degrees Celsius.
The ash and remains of the bodies were then buried in a jar. Traces of red petals were found in a jar. Archeologists believe red flowers signified life and eternity in ancient Persia.
“A burial ritual encompassing burning has never been observed in Iran,” said Hassan Fazeli, the director of Iran’s Archeology Research Center. “It shows the rare discovery’s great importance.”
Sialk Tappeh was first excavated by a team of European archeologists headed by Roman Ghirshman in the 1930s.
Grishman observed, “People of Sialk, near Kashan, were the most ancient plainsmen of the world, evidence from whose lives has been found over there. People of the time (5th millennium BCE) were familiar with the textile industry, and all of them, both men and women, were interested in making and using ornamentations.”
He considered the discovered hills in Sialk Tappeh belonging to the third millennium BCE as evidence of financial and accounting management.
His extensive studies were followed by D.E. McCown, Y. Majidzadeh and P. Amieh, up until the 1970s, and recently reviewed by Iran’s Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization in 2002.
But like the thousands of other Iranian historical ruins, the treasures excavated here eventually found their way to museums such as The Louvre, The British Museum, The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and private collectors.

Source: Iran Daily


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Re: Tepe Sialk

Postby Parvaneh » Sun May 25, 2014 12:59 pm

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Re: Tepe Sialk

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Mar 30, 2015 6:04 am

Sialk is the name of the first urban civilization in central Iran, which is located three kilometers southwest of the city of Kashan. This historical site dates back to 7,000 years ago and consists of two northern and southern hills, 600 meters apart, in addition to two cemetries. This historical site has been registered and enlisted among Iran’s historical and national sites and it is known as one of the richest and well-known hisotrical sites across the globe. It was not discovered until the year 1931.

During the years 1932 to 1934, a French archeological group explored and excavated this region and managed to unearth ceremaic and metallic works from these hills, reaching astonishing results. Based on the extensive studies of this group, Sialk has been identified as the first origin of mankind’s civilization and the first place of resdience of mankind. It is also the first region, in which mankind used construction materials such as sun-dried mud bricks and mortar to build houses.

Some of the works of art discovered in this historical site are kept in Louvre Museum, Iran’ National Museum and Kashan’s Fin Orchard Museum.

Meanwhile, during their explorations, the archeologists managed to discover the most ancient cone-shaped temples of the world, belonging to 2800 BC in this historical site. In addition to discovery of this temple, several metal-melting furnaces belonging to the year 3000 BC were also found in these excavations. These furnaces and the architectural remains from the Iron Age are due to be renovated. It seems this historical site is situated next to a large sea which had covered all of Iran’s central plain and Afghanistan, while with this sea’s gradual disappearance and emergence of fertile lands, the people who lived throughout altittudes, migrated to Sialk region. At the first glance, only a hill and its wall, which is made of sun-dried mud bricks, are evident. However, given the old age and ancient history of Sialk site, this region is considered as a corridor to a new world and heavens for the archeologists. It is the only historical site in Iran’s plain, where pre-Archimenean writings have been discovered.

http://english.irib.ir


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Re: Tepe Sialk-Tapehaye Sialk-Syalk

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Mar 30, 2015 6:07 am

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