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What is Qanat?

Helpful information about qanats in Iran like name, introduction, maps, requirements and...

What is Qanat?

Postby goiran » Tue Aug 13, 2013 8:41 am

A qanāt (from Arabic: قناة‎, in Persian: کاریز‎ kariz) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. Qanats are also called kārīz (or kārēz from Persian: كاريز‎) (Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Central Asia, derived from Persian: كاهریز‎), kahan (from Persian: کهن‎), kahriz/kəhriz (Azerbaijan); khettara (Morocco); galería (Spain); falaj (United Arab Emirates and Oman); Kahn (Baloch) or foggara/fughara (North Africa).

Alternative terms for qanats in Asia and North Africa are kakuriz, chin-avulz, and mayun. Common variants of qanat in English include kanat, khanat, kunut, kona, konait, ghanat, ghundat.

The qanat technology is known to have been developed by the Persian people sometime in the early 1st millennium BC and to have spread from there slowly west- and eastward.

The value of a qanat is directly related to the quality, volume and regularity of the water flow. Much of the population of Iran and other arid countries in Asia and North Africa historically depended upon the water from qanats; the areas of population corresponded closely to the areas where qanats are possible. Although a qanat was expensive to construct, its long-term value to the community, and thereby to the group that invested in building and maintaining it, was substantial.
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Re: What is Qanat?

Postby goiran » Tue Aug 13, 2013 8:41 am

Qanats are constructed as a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels. Qanats tap into subterranean water in a manner that efficiently delivers large quantities of water to the surface without need for pumping. The water drains by gravity, with the destination lower than the source, which is typically an upland aquifer. Qanats allow water to be transported over long distances in hot dry climates without loss of much of the water to evaporation.

It is very common in the construction of a qanat for the water source to be found below ground at the foot of a range of foothills of mountains, where the water table is closest to the surface. From this point, the slope of the qanat is maintained closer to level than the surface above, until the water finally flows out of the qanat above ground. To reach an aquifer, qanats must often extend for long distances.

Qanats are sometimes split into an underground distribution network of smaller canals called kariz. Like qanats, these smaller canals were below ground to avoid contamination. In some cases water from a qanat is stored in a reservoir, typically with night flow stored for daytime use. An Ab Anbar is an example of a traditional qanat-fed reservoir for drinking water in Persian antiquity.

The qanat system has the advantage of being resistant to natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods, and to deliberate destruction in war. Furthermore, it is almost insensitive to the levels of precipitation, delivering a flow with only gradual variations from wet to dry years.
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Re: What is Qanat?

Postby Marcopolo » Mon Aug 19, 2013 6:43 am

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Re: What is Qanat?

Postby Vanessa » Mon Sep 15, 2014 12:05 pm

Goiran! You have posted great information about Qanat. It is very helpful for those who don’t have any idea about this system. I have not heard about it before. First time I have heard about it from your post. I really like it. It is very safe and helpful for the life of human beings. Everyone should prevail this kind of knowledge.
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Re: What is Qanat?

Postby powvovog » Wed Aug 05, 2015 9:01 am

It is a classic class content, some words are the key problems that pierce to the heart of the matter!
Thanks for sharing. :) :) :)
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