Fars nomadic tribes have founded a rich culture in Fars Province and part of the nomads' culture is manifested in their lifestyle. The cultural features and characteristics of nomads in Fars Province is one of the most important and main tourist attractions of this province.
In this article, we will become more familiar with the nomads of Fars Province.
The nomads of Fars Province are comprised of three large tribes of Qashqai, Khamseh, and Mamasani, and eight other independent tribes. The migrating nomadic tribes of this region, throughout the warm season, are stationed in northern Fars Province, and within the cold season, migrate to the southeastern, southwestern, and at times the central plains of Fars Province. These regions are generally at a low altitude and maintain a mild climate in winter and a highly warm climate over summer. Meanwhile, the winter headquarters of some of Fars Province nomadic tribes, such as Qashqai tribe is throughout the southern foothills of Zagros Mountain Range. At times, their winter quarters of these nomads is further distanced from these valleys and is extended toward the low-altitude coastal plains till Bushehr Province and southern coastlines of Iran. The overall population of nomads of Fars Province stands at 147,000 people; who constitute 12.5% of the nomads of Iran, and 3.5% of the population of Fars Province.
Qashqai tribe is one of the largest and most famous migrating nomadic tribes in Iran. Hence, in the first part of today's program we will become more familiar with this tribe.
Qashqai tribe is made up of six smaller tribes. The tribal chief is called "Eelkhan". The person in charge of the administration of the affairs and law enforcement of the tribe is referred to as "Eelbaigi". Meanwhile, each of the tribes is made of clans, whose gathering is based on affiliation and kinship among them. The Qashqai tribe members are hard working, courageous, patient, and hospitable, and are highly skilled in marksmanship.
Currently there is scattered information on the history of Qashqai tribe and it is not clear that when this Azeri-speaking tribe has migrated to this region. Nonetheless, based on the existing evidence, it is clear that the members of this tribe have not migrated to Fars Province in the same period of time and in the form of a unified tribe. In fact, this tribe has been shaped gradually with the unity of Azeri-speaking clans and tribes.
Meanwhile, the slow and gradual migration of scattered Qashqai tribes toward southern Iran started as of 600 years ago and continued for almost three centuries until the waning years of the rule of Zandieh Dynasty. The unity of Qashqai tribe and in fact their independent identity became possible during late Safavid era, concurrent with early 18th century.
The economic and social foundation of this tribe, like all other tribes, migrating to and fro cold and warm regions every year, is based on animal husbandry. This tribe has been one of the largest and most powerful tent-dwelling tribes of Iran as of 200 years ago, and as of three centuries ago regularly covers tens of kilometers of distance between its summer and winter quarters each year.
With the arrival of summer, the black tents, which are the place of residence of nomads, are gathered away and all tribe members are destined for meadows on foot or mounted on livestock every year. Meanwhile, with the arrival of cold season, this path is once again covered by the tribal members toward the southern pastures.
Gradually, a number of tribal families and groups are stationed in en route villages and farmlands and are engaged in farming and horticulture. But, the main part of this tribe is still engaged in animal husbandry and ranching, and, naturally move to and fro southern meadows and the scenic altitudes of northern Fars Province, which maintains a moderate climate.
In introduction of the Qashqai nomads, we spoke of black tents, which are the place of residence of these nomads. Hence, it is better to become more familiar with the housing of these nomads.
The place of residence of Iran's migrating nomadic tribes in each region depends on the climate, rate of rainfall, and finally the existing construction materials in that region. Almost, the majority of the migrating nomads in warm and cold regions have places of residence similar to villagers' houses. Meanwhile, usage of black tents is common among Iran's migrating nomads and is compatible with their lifestyle. Black tent is made of goat's hair and is black in color, while rain drops cannot penetrate its layers. During summer, the outer layers of the tent are opened and throughout winter all its layers are closed. The black tents of tribal chiefs are like a large hall, which accommodate a large number of people. At the time of migration; tribes carry light and temporary tents with them which are easily erected and taken away. The tribal men are highly skilled in erecting these tents in the shortest possible time.
The local clothes of the Qashqai men and women are also highly attractive, and, today have turned into one of this tribe's most significant cultural attractions. Women's clothing consists of a small hat, head scarf, colorful, long, and pleated skirts. Also, they wear jackets named "Arkhaleq" over their clothes. Moreover, their jacket and clothing are usually decorated and covered with sequins. The nomadic women use different cheerful colors in sewing their clothes, which are inspired by their surrounding nature. Moreover, the tribal men's clothing consists of a felt hat, a shirt, baggy trousers, long clothing referred to as "Labadeh", and a sash which is four to five meters in length and almost one meter in width.
The Qashqai women cooperate with men in all activities. They are a true example of chastity, hard work, and patience. In addition to doing the house chores and taking care of children, these women cooperate with men in harvesting crops and in maintaining them. They make dairy products such as butter, yogurt, cheese, dried whey, and cream from fresh milk. During their pastime, nomadic women weave carpets, rugs, coarse rugs, and low grade rugs, while also making different types of handicrafts. The carpet weaving art and industry of Fars Province nomads is handled by the tribal women. The hand-woven carpets of Fars Province are unique in regard to their variety, in comparison with the hand woven carpets of other regions.
Freshness, transparency, and variety of colors used, more than any other factor, has led to global fame of Qashqai tribe's hand woven carpets. The ability of Qashqai women in painting fleece, preparing different colors, and appropriately using them is astonishing and unique.
Location: located Fars province.
Walking path length: Depend on Your plan
Days of trip: 3-4 Days from Tehran to Tehran
Best time to visit: No Limit-Bur Spring is the best time
Daily time visit: No limit
Difficulty level: Depend on Your plan
Requirements: Guide or GPS track...Depend on Your plan
Legal permission need: No
Overall risk: No
Animal risk: Depend on Your plan
Lost risk: Depend on Your plan
Rescue: You can call 115
GSM Mobile Antenna: in some region Yes
Hotel: in Shiraz city Yes
Shop: in Shiraz city Yes
Gasoline: in Shiraz city Yes
How to get there:
1- Go to South terminal of buses in Tehran
2- Take a bus ticket to Shiraz(10-12 hours in bus)( Distance from Tehran to Shiraz is 940 km)
3- Take a taxi from Shiraz to your place that you specified.
Nearest airport: Shiraz airport
Nearest train station: Shiraz station
Location on map: