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Pasargad

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Pasargad

Postby Mehdi » Mon Aug 05, 2013 9:10 am

Introduction: Pasargadae was the first dynastic capital of the Achaemenid Empire, founded by Cyrus II the Great, in Pars, homeland of the Persians, in the 6th century BC. Its palaces, gardens and the mausoleum of Cyrus are outstanding examples of the first phase of royal Achaemenid art and architecture and exceptional testimonies of Persian civilization. Particularly noteworthy vestiges in the 160-ha site include: the Mausoleum of Cyrus II; Tall-e Takht, a fortified terrace; and a royal ensemble of gatehouse, audience hall, residential palace and gardens. Pasargadae was the capital of the first great multicultural empire in Western Asia. Spanning the Eastern Mediterranean and Egypt to the Hindus River, it is considered to be the first empire that respected the cultural diversity of its different peoples. This was reflected in Achaemenid architecture, a synthetic representation of different cultures.

The dynastic capital of Pasargadae was built by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC with contributions from different peoples of the empire created by him. It became a fundamental phase in the evolution of the classic Persian art and architecture. With its palaces, gardens, and the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Cyrus the Great, Pasargadae represents exceptional testimony to the Achaemenid civilisation in Persia. The 'Four Gardens' type of royal ensemble created in Pasargadae became a prototype for Western Asian architecture and design.

Pasargadae is located in the plain on the river Polvar, in the heart of Pars, the homeland of the Persians. The position of the town is also denoted in its name: 'the camp of Persia'. The core zone of the site is surrounded by a large landscape buffer zone. The core area contains many monuments: the Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great is built from white limestone around 540-530 BCE. The mausoleum chamber, on the top, has the form of a simple gable house with a small opening from the west. In the medieval period, the monument was thought to be the tomb of Solomon's mother, and a mosque was built around it, using columns from the remains of the ancient palaces. A small prayer niche (mihrab ) was carved in the tomb chamber. In the 1970s, during a restoration, the remains of the mosque were removed, and the ancient fragments were deposited close to their original location.

The Tall-e Takht refers to the great fortified terrace platform built on a hill at the northern limit of Pasargadae. This limestone structure is built from dry masonry, using large regular stone blocks and a jointing technique called anathyrosis, which was known in Asia Minor in the 6th century. The first phase of the construction was built by Cyrus the Great, halted at his death in 530 BCE. The second phase was built under Darius the Great (522-486 BCE), using mud brick construction.

The royal ensemble occupies the central area of Pasargadae. It consists of several palaces originally located within a garden ensemble (the so-called 'Four Gardens'). The colour scheme of the architecture is given by the black and white stones used in its structure. The main body of the palaces is formed of a hypostyle hall, to which are attached porticoes. The Audience Hall was built around 539 BCE. Its hypostyle hall has two rows of four columns. The column bases are in black stone and the column shafts in white limestone. The capitals were in black stone. There is evidence of a capital representing a hybrid, horned and crested lion. The palace had a portico on each side. Some of the bas-reliefs of the doorways are preserved, showing human figures and monsters.

The Residential Palace of Cyrus II was built 535-530 BCE; its hypostyle hall has five rows of six columns. The Gate House stands at the eastern limit of the core zone. It is a hypostyle hall with a rectangular plan. In one of the door jambs is the famous relief of the 'winged figure'.
In later periods, Tall-e Takht continued to be used as a fort, whereas the palaces were abandoned and the material was reused. From the 7th century onwards, the tomb of Cyrus was called the Tomb of the Mother of Solomon, and it became a place of pilgrimage. In the 10th century, a small mosque was built around it, which was in use until the 14th century.

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Location: Fars province

Walking path length: No need to walking

Days of trip: 3 Days from Tehran to Tehran (Without heavy traffic you need about 12 hr driving from Tehran to Pasargad)
Attention: In holidays there is heavy traffic in all roads around Tehran.

Best time to visit: May to October

Daily time visit: No permission at night

Difficulty level: Easy

Requirements: Guide or GPS track, water, food, warm and waterproof clothes and...

Legal permission need: No


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Overall risk: -

Animal risk: No

Lost risk: No

Rescue: Yes, you can call 115

GSM Mobile Antenna: Yes


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Hotel: Yes

Village: Located near a city

Shop: In Yes

Gasoline: Yes


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How to get there:
1- Go to Baihaghi or south terminal of buses in Tehran (more info)
2- Take a bus to Marvdasht or Shiraz
3- Take a taxi to Pasargad


Nearest airport: Shiraz airport

Nearest train station: Shiraz station


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Location on map:





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More Pictures:

http://www.anobanini.net/forum/showthread.php?4406
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Pasargad-Pâthragâda-Pasargadae

Postby Parvaneh » Tue Feb 11, 2014 8:17 am

The tomb of Cyrus

King Darius I the Great (522-486 BCE) built a new capital, Persepolis, forty-three kilometers downstream along the river Pulvar. However, Pasargadae remained an important place, probably as the religious capital of the Achaemenid empire where the inauguration of the kings took place.


Unfinished tomb of Cambyses, PasargadaeLiterature
E. Badian, 'Alexander the Great between two thrones and Heaven: variations on an old theme' in: Alastair Small (ed.), Subject and Ruler: the Cult of the Ruling Power in Classical Antiquity (1996 Ann Arbor)


D. Stronach, Pasargadae 1978. This book is summarized and updated by the author as 'Pasargadae' in Ilya Gershevitch (ed.): The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. II: The Median and Achaemenian Periods, 1985 Cambridge, pages 838-855.
- See more at: http://iranchamber.com/history/pasargad ... xsXdg.dpuf

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Pasargad-Pâthragâda-Pasargadae--Tomb of Cyrus-Koorush Kabir Tomb

Postby Parvaneh » Fri Mar 14, 2014 4:32 am

Pasargadae
By: Jona Lendering


In old Persian Pâthragâda: oldest of the capitals of the ancient Achaemenid empire, built by the founder of this empire, king Cyrus the Great (559-330 BCE). It resembled a park of 2x3 km in which several monumental buildings were to be seen.

Map of Pasargadae According to the Roman geographer Strabo of Amasia, Pasargadae was built on the site where king Cyrus defeated the leader of the Medes, Astyages, in 550 BCE (Strabo, Geography 15.3.8). That Cyrus was indeed the builder of this town, can be corroborated from the building inscriptions in the palace, which state Cyrus the Great King, an Achaemenian.

The heart of Pasargadae is the citadel, which is known as Tall-i-Takht or 'throne hill'. It overlooks a garden ('paradise') in the south, and the palace complex itself. This consists of two smaller units: the residential palace and the many columned audience hall. The audience hall or Apadana can be approached from the south-east; the visitor first has to pass a gate and then has to cross a bridge over the river Pulvâr.

Stylistically, the Apadana belongs to the architectural tradition of the Iranian nomads, who lived in large tents. However, Cyrus used elements from other cultures as well: sculptures from the Assyrian palaces were used as models, work was done by stonemasons from Greek Ionia, and a Phoenician demon guarded the palace. Probably, the population of the city had a similar, mixed character.

The small tomb of king Cyrus -stylistically based on a model from western Turkey- is situated a little to the southwest. It was venerated by later rulers, a.o. the Macedonian king Alexander the Great, who ordered restorations in January 324 BCE. The tomb of Cyrus' successor Cambyses was never finished.


The tomb of Cyrus

King Darius I the Great (522-486 BCE) built a new capital, Persepolis, forty-three kilometers downstream along the river Pulvar. However, Pasargadae remained an important place, probably as the religious capital of the Achaemenid empire where the inauguration of the kings took place.

http://iranchamber.com/history/pasargad ... rgadae.php
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Re: Pasargad

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Apr 07, 2014 6:33 am

Pasargadae is the capital city and the burial place of Cyrus the Great, the king who founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire, centered on Persia and comprising the Near East from the Aegean Sea eastward to the Indus River. He is also remembered in the Cyrus legend—first recorded by Xenophon, Greek soldier and author, in his Cyropaedia—as a tolerant and ideal monarch.

Cyrus the Great was not only a great conqueror and administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome.

It is a testimony to the capability of the founder of the Achaemenid empire that it continued to expand after his death and lasted for more than two centuries. But Cyrus was not only a great conqueror and administrator; he held a place in the minds of the Persian people similar to that of Romulus and Remus in Rome. His saga follows in many details the stories of hero and conquerors from elsewhere in the ancient world. The sentiments of esteem or even awe in which Persians held him were transmitted to the Greeks, and it was no accident that Xenophon chose Cyrus to be the model of a ruler for the lessons he wished to impart to his fellow Greeks.
The figure of Cyrus has survived throughout history as more than a great man who founded an empire. He became the epitome of the great qualities expected of a ruler in antiquity, and he assumed heroic features as a conqueror who was tolerant and magnanimous as well as brave and daring. His personality as seen by the Greeks influenced them and Alexander the Great, and, as the tradition was transmitted by the Romans, may be considered to influence the Western culture even now.
Pasargadae
Cyrus seems to have had several capitals. One was the city of Ecbatana, modern Hamadan, former capital of the Medes, and another was a new capital of the empire, Pasargadae, in Persis, said to be on the site where Cyrus had won the battle against Astyages. The ruins today, though few, arouse admiration in the visitor. Cyrus also kept Babylon as a winter capital. The name of the city may have been derived from that of the chief Persian tribe, the Pasargadae.

The majestic simplicity of the architecture at Pasargadae reflects a sense of balance and beauty that was never equaled in either earlier or later Achaemenian times.

The majestic simplicity of the architecture at Pasargadae reflects a sense of balance and beauty that was never equaled in either earlier or later Achaemenian times. The principal buildings stand in magnificent isolation, often with a common orientation but scattered over a remarkably wide area. Although no single wall enclosed the whole site, a strong citadel commanded the northern approaches. The dominant feature of the citadel is a huge stone platform, projecting from a low, conical hill. Two unfinished stone staircases and a towering facade of rusticated masonry were evidently intended to form part of an elevated palace enclosure. An abrupt event, however, brought the work to a halt, and a formidable mud-brick structure was erected on the platform instead. It is possible that the building represents the famous treasury surrendered to Alexander the Great in 330 BC.
To the south of the citadel was an extensive walled park with elaborate, irrigated gardens surrounded by a series of royal buildings. These walled gardens were called ‘Pardīs’ in ancient Persian-- which still survives in English in the word ‘Paradise’.
Amongst these one building, designed as the sole entrance to the park, is notable for a unique four-winged, crowned figure that stands on a surviving doorjamb; the figure appears to represent an Achaemenian version of the four-winged genius (guardian spirit) found on palace doorways in Assyria.

At the extreme southern edge of the site, an impressive rock-cut road or canal indicates the course of the ancient highway that once linked Pasargadae with Persepolis.

Farther to the south, the tomb of Cyrus still stands almost intact. Constructed of huge, white limestone blocks, its gabled tomb chamber rests on a rectangular, stepped plinth, with six receding stages. In Islāmic times the tomb acquired new sanctity as the supposed resting place of the mother of King Solomon. At the extreme southern edge of the site, an impressive rock-cut road or canal indicates the course of the ancient highway that once linked Pasargadae with Persepolis.
After the accession of Darius I the Great (522 BC), Persepolis replaced Pasargadae as the dynastic home.
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Re: Pasargad

Postby Parvaneh » Sun Apr 13, 2014 4:45 am

Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): Pasargadae is the first outstanding expression of the royal Achaemenid architecture.

Criterion (ii): The dynastic capital of Pasargadae was built by Cyrus the Great with a contribution by different peoples of the empire created by him. It became a fundamental phase in the evolution of the classic Persian art and architecture.

Criterion (iii): The archaeological site of Pasargadae with its palaces, gardens, and the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Cyrus the Great, represents an exceptional testimony to the Achaemenid civilisation in Persia.

Criterion (iv): The ‘Four Gardens’ type of royal ensemble, which was created in Pasargadae became a prototype for Western Asian architecture and design.
Description

The dynastic capital of Pasargadae was built by Cyrus the Great in the 6th century BC with contributions from different peoples of the empire created by him. It became a fundamental phase in the evolution of the classic Persian art and architecture. With its palaces, gardens, and the tomb of the founder of the dynasty, Cyrus the Great, Pasargadae represents exceptional testimony to the Achaemenid civilisation in Persia. The 'Four Gardens' type of royal ensemble created in Pasargadae became a prototype for Western Asian architecture and design.

Pasargadae is located in the plain on the river Polvar, in the heart of Pars, the homeland of the Persians. The position of the town is also denoted in its name: 'the camp of Persia'. The core zone of the site is surrounded by a large landscape buffer zone. The core area contains many monuments: the Mausoleum of Cyrus the Great is built from white limestone around 540-530 BCE. The mausoleum chamber, on the top, has the form of a simple gable house with a small opening from the west. In the medieval period, the monument was thought to be the tomb of Solomon's mother, and a mosque was built around it, using columns from the remains of the ancient palaces. A small prayer niche (mihrab) was carved in the tomb chamber. In the 1970s, during a restoration, the remains of the mosque were removed, and the ancient fragments were deposited close to their original location.

The Tall-e Takht refers to the great fortified terrace platform built on a hill at the northern limit of Pasargadae. This limestone structure is built from dry masonry, using large regular stone blocks and a jointing technique called anathyrosis, which was known in Asia Minor in the 6th century. The first phase of the construction was built by Cyrus the Great, halted at his death in 530 BCE. The second phase was built under Darius the Great (522-486 BCE), using mud brick construction.

The royal ensemble occupies the central area of Pasargadae. It consists of several palaces originally located within a garden ensemble (the so-called 'Four Gardens'). The colour scheme of the architecture is given by the black and white stones used in its structure. The main body of the palaces is formed of a hypostyle hall, to which are attached porticoes. The Audience Hall was built around 539 BCE. Its hypostyle hall has two rows of four columns. The column bases are in black stone and the column shafts in white limestone. The capitals were in black stone. There is evidence of a capital representing a hybrid, horned and crested lion. The palace had a portico on each side. Some of the bas-reliefs of the doorways are preserved, showing human figures and monsters. The Residential Palace of Cyrus II was built 535-530 BCE; its hypostyle hall has five rows of six columns. The Gate House stands at the eastern limit of the core zone. It is a hypostyle hall with a rectangular plan. In one of the door jambs is the famous relief of the 'winged figure'.

In later periods, Tall-e Takht continued to be used as a fort, whereas the palaces were abandoned and the material was reused. From the 7th century onwards, the tomb of Cyrus was called the Tomb of the Mother of Solomon, and it became a place of pilgrimage. In the 10th century, a small mosque was built around it, which was in use until the 14th century.
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Re: Pasargad

Postby Barbara J. Stephens » Tue Apr 15, 2014 7:25 am

Nice information you collected about it,its really helpful for the history lovers.Its have a great history in Iranian Heritage.I like to know about it.I also visited it and many people from all over the world especially history lovers come to that place to collect informative stuff to watch and enjoy and also some photographer to take the pictures.
Have you ever been travel to new york knoxville in bus http://www.getbusticket.com/new-york-ny-to-knoxville-tn.html with this bus service?
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Re: Pasargad

Postby Parvaneh » Mon Apr 28, 2014 6:14 am

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Re: Pasargad

Postby Barbara J. Stephens » Sun Sep 07, 2014 12:38 pm

In this place many tourist come there every year and i saw in this pics that many crowded areas is in Iran..
Have you ever been travel to new york knoxville in bus http://www.getbusticket.com/new-york-ny-to-knoxville-tn.html with this bus service?
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Tomb of Cyrus-Koorush Kabir (Cyrus) Tomb

Postby Parvaneh » Tue Feb 03, 2015 8:00 am

On the Shiraz - Esfahan Road
and in the Morqab plains, this rectangular monument is built on a six-storey platform. On the top floor, which is 3 m. high, there are two tombs, one belonging to Koorush, and the other to his wife Kassandan mother of Kamboujieh. These two graves are interconnected by a meter long and 35 cm. wide corridor.
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Pasargadae, Marvdasht

Postby Parvaneh » Tue Feb 03, 2015 8:27 am

This palace is 600 meters to the northeast of the Koorush shrine. The area of this palace is 2,620 square meters and includes a large hall (with eight columns) in the middle and four terraces in four directions and two rooms in the corners. To the east of the palace is Pasargadae, composed of a large hall with eight columns. There is a doorway on the north, east and western side of this hall. In the northern doorway, there is an impression of a winged human with two wings directed towards the sky and two wings to the bottom. Where as the hands are raised towards the sky in a gesture of prayer. This edifice with 3,427 square meters area, is located 15 km. northwest of the palace. The main hall has 30 columns made of white stone. A mass of black and white stones have been used as construction material. One of the characteristics of Pasargadae is the canals made of white stone, which were used, for irrigation.

There are equally other remains distributed in the province, some registered as national heritage monuments. These include the ruins of the Achaemenian Dynasty (Saravan Village), the Dokhtar Palace (Rastaq Village) dating back to the 3rd century AD, the restored Sassanian Palace (Sarvestan) dating originally back to the time of Bahram Gour (year 420 AD), Ardeshir Babakan Palace (Marvdasht).
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